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What is the One-dimensional Model?
Explains abnormal behavior in terms of a single cause. Other information is ingnored.
What is the Multi-dimensional Model?
- That abnormal behavior results from multiple influences. Uses info from several sources. How we treat people now.
- -Biological factors
- -Behavioral factors
- -Emotional influences
- -Social factors (more female dominated)
- -Developmental factors (milestones)
What is Phenotype?
Actively seeing the disorder. Observable characteristics or behaviors
What is Genotype?
Genetic disposition to develop a disorder under situational circumstances.
What is a Dominant gene?
One of a pair of genes that determines a particular trait.
What is a Recessive gene?
A gene that must be paired with another recessive gene to determine a trait
What does the central nervous system contain?
The brain and spinal cord
What is the Peripheral nervous system?
The somatic and autonomic branches of the nervous system
What is a Neuron?
Cells that conduct transmissions throughout the nervous system that control every thought and action.
What is the Soma?
- The cell body of the neuron
What is the Dendrites?
- The branches that receive messages from other neurons
What is the Axon?
- The trunk of the Neuron that sends messages to other neurons
What are the Axon terminals?
- Buds at the end of the axon from which chemical messages are sent.
What are Synapses?
- Small gaps that separate neurons.
What are Neurotransmitters?
How neurons communicate, they are chemical messengers.
What is the Brainstem?
The lower and more ancient part of the brain. Controls most of the essential automatic functions. Breathing, sleeping, moving in a coordinated way.
What is the Hindbrain and it's components?
- -Medulla: Heart rate, blood pressure and respiration
- -Pons: Regulates sleep stages
- -Cerebellum: Involved in physical coordination
What is the Midbrain responsible for?
- -Coordinates movement with sensory input
- -Contains parts of the reticular activating system (RAS)
What is contained in the Forebrain, and what is it responsible for?
- The cerebral cortex.
- -Most sensory, emotional and cognitive processing
- -Two specialized hemispheres
What are the Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex?
- Frontal: Thinking and reasoning abilities
- Parietal: Touch recognition
- Occipital: Integrates visual input
- Temporal: Recognition of sights and sounds, long term memory storage.
What is contained in the Limbic system?
- Thalamus: Receives and integrates sensory information
- Hypothalamus: Eating, drinking, aggression, sexual activity.
The Autonomic branch of the PNS has two specific functions. Name them, and their functions.
- Sympathetic: Fight or flight response
- Parasympathetic: Regulates normality
Types of Neurotransmitters
- -Inverse agonists
Name the Neurotransmitters
- -Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and Benzodiazepines
- -Norepinephrine and beta blockers
- - Dopamine and L-dopa
What is Serotonin?
- The chemical believed to influence a great deal of our behavior, particularly the way we process info.
- Low levels=less inhibition, instability, impulsivity, overreactions, aggression, suicide, overeating, excessive sexual behavior.
What is Dopamine associated with?
Implicated in psychological disorders such as schizophrenia, and excessive outgoing pleasure seeking activities.
What is Learned Helplessness?
Occurs when animals encounter conditions over which they have no control whatsoever
Short-lived temporary state lasting from several minutes to hours, occurring in response to an external event
More persistent period of affect or emotionality
Cultural Effects are:
Influence the form and expression of behavior
-exerts a strong and puzzling effect on psychopathology. Likelihood is increased dependent upon gender. Men more likely to hide or endure phobla, women are more accepted to have phobias.
Social effects of health and behavior:
More friends=more you are likely to live longer
Stigma of Psychopathology:
Culturally, socially, and interpersonally situated. Psychopathology occurs in all cultures, but may have diff. names associated with the disorder.
Life-span and Development Influences of Psychopathology:
Developmental changes such as Transitional periods may cause pathology to surface.
Purposes of clinical assessment:
Analogous to a funnel-starts broad and narrows to specific problems
- -To understand the individual
- -To predict behavior
- -To plan treatment
- -To evaluate treatment outcome
What is Reliability?
Consistency in measurement of testing.
What is Validity?
-What the test measures and how well it does so.
What is Standardization?
-Fosters consistent use of techniques. Test appropriate for all, or just specific group.
3 Domains of Assessment are:
- 1. Clinical Interview
- 2. Mental Status Exam
- 3. Physical Exam
- -Focus on here and now
- -Direct and minimally inferential
- -Target behaviors identified and observed
- -Focus on antecedents, behaviors, and consequences
Psychological testing must be what?
Reliable and Valid
- Rorshach inkblot test, Thematic Apperception Test
- EXNER: Form of scoring for Rorshach and TAT tests. Reliability and validity tend to be mixed.
MMPI, MMPI-2, MMPI-A: Very statistically sound
- -Allows examination of brain structures and function
- a.CAT scan: Computerized axial tomography
- b. MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
- c. PET: Positron emission tomography
- d. Single photon emission computed tomography
- -Provide detailed info. regarding brain function, but are expensive, lack norms and have limited clinical utility.
- -Used to assess brain structure, function, and activity of the nervous system
- a. EEG: Electroencephalagram-Brain wave activity
- b. Cardiorespiratory activity- Heart rate and respiration
- c. Electrodermal response- Sweat gland activity
- d. EMG: Electromyography- Muscle Tension
The 5 DSM-IV axes:
- -Axis 1: Most Major disorders
- -Axis 2: Stable, enduring problems (ex. personality disorders, mental retardation)
- -Axis 3: Medical conditions related to abnormal behavior
- -Axis 4: Psychosocial problems
- -Axis 5: Global clinician rating of adaptive functioning
Is it optimal for treatment or research? High Comorbidity: Presence of one or more disorders in addition to primary disorder.