Psyc Exam 1 Abnormal ch 1,2,3

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Psyc Exam 1 Abnormal ch 1,2,3
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2010-12-02 01:49:54
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Psyc Exam abn history abnormal behavior etiology treatment models
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Psyc Exam 1 abn. ch 1,2,3, history of abnormal behavior, etiology, treatment models
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  1. good-of-fit
    -the idea that behavior is problematic or not problematic depending on the environment in which it occurs
  2. culture-bound illness
    - abnormal behaviors specific to a particular location or group
  3. abnormal behavior
    - behavior inconsistent with person's developmental, culturl, and societal norms causing distress and dysfunction
  4. clinical presentation
    - symptoms that cluster together
  5. etiology
    - how the disorder begins
  6. developmental stage
    - whether a disorder looks different in a child than an adult
  7. finctional impairment
    - immediate and long term consequences of having the disorder
  8. contextual factors
    - age, race, gender, ethnicity
  9. developmental trajectory
    - idea that common sympoms of a disorder may vary depending on a person's age
  10. downward drift
    - phenomenon of decreased success in life because of the affects of a disorder
  11. trephination
    • - drilling a hole in someone's head to release demons from the brain
    • - practiced in ancient cultures like Egypt
  12. Hippocrates
    • - father of medicine
    • - identified hallucinations, delusions, melancholia, mania, hysteria
    • - abn. behav. occurs when environment and physical factors cause imbalance in 4 humours
    • - advocated patient removal from family foreshadowing institutions
  13. Hippocrates 4 humours
    - yellow bile, black bile, blood, phlegm
  14. Galen
    - successor to Hippocrates ideas
  15. mass hysteria
    - group of people share a belief not based in fact
  16. emotional contagion
    - automatic mimicry and synchronization of expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements of one person by another
  17. lycanthropy
    - people believe they're possessed by wolves
  18. tarantism
    - belief that a tarantula bite would cause death unless the person danced wildly
  19. Philippe Pinel
    - created an asylum for men
  20. William Tuke
    • - created an asylum out of a house for people with mental illnesses to live
    • - "kindness and occupation" moral treatment
  21. Benjamin Rush
    • - mental illness caused by blood vessels in brain
    • - mind most important area of study
  22. Dorothea Dix
    • - associated with humane care
    • - US schoolteacher concerned with mental illness
  23. animal magnetism
    - force that Mesmer believed fowed within the body and when impeded caused disease
  24. placebo effect
    - symptoms of illness diminish because patient believes treatment is effective
  25. psychoanalysis
    • - associated with Freud
    • - many aspects of behavior controlled by unconscious innate biological urges existing from infancy
  26. talking cure
    - discussion of psych distress with a trained professional
  27. schizophrenia
    - disorder involving abnormal thought, perception, and behavior
  28. dementia praecox
    - Kraepelin's name for disorder of deterioration of mental faculties (now schizophrenia)
  29. classical conditioning
    • - Ivan Pavlov
    • - conditioned stimulus paired with unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response
  30. behaviorism
    • -John Watson
    • - the only appropriate objects of scientific stufy are observable measurable behaviors
  31. scientist-practitioner approach
    • - concept that when providing treatment to patients, clinicians rely on findings of research and when researching they focus on topics that help guide and improve psychological care
    • - everything done by psychology and for psychology
  32. neuroscience
    - study of structure and function of the nervous system and interaction of the system and behavior
  33. biological scarring
    - years of living with a disorder cause physical changes in the brain
  34. behavioral genetics
    - study of the role of genes and environment in the transmission of behavioral traits
  35. viral infection theory
    - during or shortly after prenatal period a virus might cause a psych disorder
  36. psychoanalytical regions (3)
    • id- inner drives, urges
    • ego- mediates the id's impulses
    • superego- conscience
  37. Freud's sexual stages
    • oral phase
    • anal phase
    • phallic phase
    • latency phase
    • genital phase
  38. ego psychology
    - form of psychodynamic theory that focuses on conscious motivations and healthy forms of human functioning
  39. operant conditioning
    • - B.F. Skinner
    • - behavior is learned or changed by what happens afterward
  40. reinforcement
    - reward that strengthens the response that precedes it
  41. vicarious conditioning
    - learning where the person doesn't need to do the behavior to learn it (learning by observation)
  42. phenomenology
    • - school of thought
    • - one's subjective perception of the world is more important than the way the world actually is
    • - (humanistic model)
  43. sociocultural model
    - abnormal behavior must be understood within the context os social and cultural forces
  44. biopsychosocial perspective
    • - biological, psychological, and social factors probably contribute to developing abnormal behavior
    • - different factors affect different people
  45. diathesis-stress model
    • - psyc disorders may have a biological predisposition (diathesis) that lies dormant until environmental stress occurs and the conbination produces abnormal behavior
    • - bio + environment triggers abn. behav.
  46. translational research
    • - focuses on communication between basic science and applied clinical research
    • - applying scientific findings
  47. central nervous system
    - brain and spinal cord
  48. peripheral nervous system
    • - somatic NS - sensation and muscle movement
    • - automonic NS - involuntary movements and homeostasis
  49. brain stem
    • - at base of brain, controls fundamental functions like breathing
    • - midbrain - coordinates sensory info and movement
  50. forebrain
    - part of brain including limbic system, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex
  51. temporal lobe
    - auditory and verbal info, labeling objects, verbal memory
  52. parietal lobe
    - sensory info and visuospatial processing
  53. occipital lobe
    - visual processing
  54. frontal lobe
    - reasoning, impulse control, judgment, memory, language, problem solving, social behavior
  55. endocrine system
    - sends messages to bodily organs through hormones
  56. neurotransmitters
    - chemical substances relaying electrical signals between one neuron and the next
  57. neuroanatomy
    - brain structure
  58. neuroimaging
    - technology that takes pics of the brain
  59. familial aggregation
    - examining whether family members of a person with a disorder are more likely to have the disorder than family members of people without the disorder
  60. proband
    - in familial aggregation the person with a disorder in the study
  61. genomwide linkage analysis
    - studying many families with many individuals who have the same disorder or large samples of relatives with the same disorder to see what genomic regions if any influence a trait
  62. candidate gene association study
    - compares genes of people with disorders to genes of people without disorders
  63. genomewide association study
    - searching the human genome comparing cases and controls for evidence of association
  64. case study
    • - not generalizeable
    • - able to gain great insight into a specific unique case
  65. single case designs
    • -ABAB research design
    • - experimental studies on a single individual
  66. controlled group designs
    • - groups of participants exposed to different conditions
    • - experiment group(s)
    • - control group
  67. random assignment
    - each participant has an equal probability of being assigned to each experimental or control group
  68. cohort
    - group of people who share a characteristic and move forward in time as a unit
  69. cross sectional design
    - participants are assessed once for the specific variable under investigation
  70. longitundinal design
    - design where participants are assessed at least two times and often more over a certain time interval
  71. epidemiology
    - the prevalence and incidence of mental disorders and factors that influence those patterns
  72. prevalence
    - number of cases of a disorder in a given population at a specific time
  73. incidence
    - number of new cases that emerge in a given population during a period of time
  74. comorbidity
    - existence of more than one disorder at the same time in the same person
  75. clinical assessment
    - gathering info about a person and their environment to make decisions about the nature of psyc problems
  76. screening
    - trying to identify psyc problems or predict risk among people not referred for clinical assessment
  77. differential diagnosis
    - weighing how likely it is a person has one diagnosis instead of another
  78. clinical significance
    - observed change meaningful in clinical fuctioning
  79. self referent comparisons
    - comparing present performance on a test with past performance
  80. reliability
    - how well a test is consistent in getting the same score
  81. interrater agreement
    -amount of agreement between two clinicians using the same measure on the same patient
  82. validity
    - degree to which a test measures what its supposed to measure
  83. clinical interviews
    - conversations between a patient
  84. unstructured interviews
    - interview in which the clinician decides what questions to ask and how to ask them
  85. structured interview
    - interview where the clinician asks a standard set of questions word for word
  86. personality test
    - psyc test that measures personality characteristics
  87. IQ
    mental age / actual age
  88. intelligence quotient
    - score of cognitive functioning that compares a persons score to their peers
  89. projective tests
    • - tests derived from psychoanalysis in which people are asked to respond to ambiguous stimuli
    • - e.g. Rorchach ink blot test
  90. functional analysis
    • - behavioral analysis or functional assessment
    • - attempting to identify causal links between problem behaviors and environmental variables
  91. behavioral observation
    • - measurement of behavior as it occurs by someone other than the person whose behavior is being observed
    • - (naturalistic observation)
  92. behavioral avoidance tests
    • - asking a patient to approach a feared situation as closely as possible
    • - e.g. asking someone afraid of heights to climb a set of stairs outside as high as they can
  93. psychophysiological assessment
    - measure brain structure, function, and nervous activity
  94. EEG
    -directly assesses electrical activity in the brain
  95. multiaxial system of diagnosis
    - requires classifying a patient's behavior on five different dimensions

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