Card Set Information
seizures parkinsons anesthetics
Disorders of motor function, seizures and anesthetics
What are the three main symptoms of a seizure?
What are the 7 types of generalized seizure?
Which seizure involves the whole brain and involves rapidly repeated flexor motions?
What type of seizure involves the whole brain and causes sudden loss of muscle tone?
What type of seizure involves the whole brain and causes muscle contraction/rigidity?
What type of seizure involves the whole brain and lasts for many minutes or returns after a brief pause?
What type of seizure involves the whole brain and causes initial muscle contraction followed by repeated flexor motions?
What type of seizure involves the whole brain and causes sudden muscle contraction that lasts for 1 second?
What type of seizure involves the whole brain and causes loss of consciousness for 10-30 seconds?
What is the MOA of antiepileptic drugs?
channel depolarization threshold
What are four AED classes?
What is the MOA of hydantoinin the treatment of seizures?
What is the MOA of Benzodiazepinesin the treatment of seizures?
Increases GABA efficacy
What is the MOA of barbituates in the treatment of seizures?
Increases GABA efficacy
What four AEDs fall into the miscellaneous class?
What is the MOA of carbamazipine in the treatment of seizures?
What is the MOA of Valproic Acid in the treatment of seizures?
channels and increases GABA efficacy
What is the MOA of gabapentin in the treatment of seizures?
Increases GABA efficacy
What is the MOA of ethosuximide in the treatment of seizures?
Which AED is good for all seizures except myoclonic?
Which AED is good only for absence seizures?
What three reasons make it necessary to monitor plasma levels when taking AEDs?
Narrow therapeutic window
Complex metabolism rates
Interaction with other drugs that increase/decrease metabolism of AED
What MOA does phenytoin have in the treatment of seizures?
What types of seizures is phenytoin used for?
What three booby traps are associated with phenytoin?
Highly protein bound
Half-life is dose dependent
Can be fatal if IV is administered to quickly
What are the adverse effects of phenytoin?
What can be used to more easily administer phenytoin by IV?
What kinds of seizures can carbamazepine be used to treat?
What are the booby traps associated with carbamazepine?
Can only be taken PO
What are the adverse effects of Carbamazepine?
SIADH (water overload)
Can affect blood cells
Which two AEDs do not induce P450 enzymes?
What are the major side effects of Valproate?
What type of seizure is phenobarbitol used to treat?
What is the prodrug for phenobarbitol?
What is the major booby trap associated with phenobarb?
Major P450 inducer
What are the adverse effects of phenobarbitol?
Folic Acid and Vit. K depletion
Increases its own metabolism
What are the major adverse effects associated with ethosuximide?
Mild neurological effects
What is a precipitating factor for status epilepticus?
abrupt discontinuation of meds
What is given to a person having a tonic-clonic status epilepticus seizure to prevent the seizure from returning?
Loading dose of fosphenytoin or any long-acting anticonvulsant
What is used to stop a status epilepticus seizure?
Lorazepam or Diazepam (benzodiazepine class AEDs)
What kind of paralysis does damage to upper motor neurons cause?
What kind of paralysis does lower motor neuron damage cause?
What is myopathy?
Disease that causes the muscle to be unable to respond to nerve impulse
What is an example of a myopathy?
What two treatments are used to treat myasthenia gravis?
What are three Upper Motor neuron diseases?
What disease has a relapsing-remitting condition that makes it difficult to conduct drug trials?
What disease is characterized by a demyelination of the nerves in the CNS that is relapsing and remitting and may be autoimmune in nature?
What disease is characterized by progressive death of motor neurons in the CNS?
What are three characteristics of disorders of the basal ganglia?
Alteration in muscle tone
Disturbances in body posture
What is tremor?
Rhythmic shaking or extremity or head.
What is a tic?
Irregular coordinated movement: winking, grimacing, shrugging
What is chorea?
Brief, rapid and coordinated graceful movements
What is athetosis?
slow, continuous, wormlike movement
What is ballismus?
Violent, sweeping movements
What is dyskinesia?
rhythmic, repetitive bizarre movements in the face
What kind of motor function disorder is Parkinsons?
What are seven types of involuntary movement?
What is bradykinesia?
Difficulty in starting and stopping movement.
What disease is characterized by a reduction in the concentration of dopamine in the striatum?
What are the three main symptoms associated with Parkinsons?
What are three methods used to treat Parkinsons?
Increase dopamine concentrations
Decrease dopamine loss
Decrease ACh concentration or activity
What are five antiparkinson drug treatments?
Two benefits of using carbidopa when treating Parkinsons with dopamine replacement
Keeps levodopa from being converted to dopamine in the periphery
Can give lower dose of levadopa
What can inhibit levadopa absorption?
What treatment can be used in combination with dopamine replacement?
What are the side effects of dopamine agonists?
Inc. risk of orthostatic hypotension, hallucination, dyskinesias
Which PD treatment will cause liver failure if used in conjunction with dobutramine?
What is the MOA of Amantidine in the treatment of PD?
Increases release of dopamine and blocks muscarinic receptors (anticholinergic)
Is Amantadine a 1st line or 2nd line drug for PD?
In what kinds of patients should anticholinergic drugs not be used when treating PD?
What three conditions does balanced general anesthesia result in:
Loss of consciousness
Why do people get IV fluids during surgery?
To counteract the decrease in blood pressure caused by inhalation anesthetics.
What must occur during the reversal phase of general anesthesia?
The neuromuscular blocker must be reversed as soon as inhalation anesthetics are removed.
What type of drugs are local anesthetics?
Sodium channel blockers.
Which class of local anesthetics is more likely to induce an allergic reaction?
Ester class like Novacaine
What is an example of using a local anesthetic to produce regional anesthesia?
What is a common local anesthetic?