Luke - Gov

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Anonymous
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34914
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Luke - Gov
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2010-09-15 12:34:00
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Government
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Test 1 - Gov 2010
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  1. Who gets what, when, and how.
    Politics
  2. The organization, or agency through which a political unit exercises its authority, controls and administers public policy, and directs and controls the actions of its members or subjects.
    Government
  3. Fundamental human rights based on universal natural law, as opposed to those based on man-made positive law.
    Natural Rights
  4. Implies that the people give up sovereignty to a government or other authority in order to receive or maintain social order through the rule of law.
    Social Contract
  5. "No rulership or enforced authority."[1]"A social state in which there is no governing person or group of people, but each individual has absolute liberty (without the implication of disorder), but is bound by a social code."[2]"Absence of government; a state of lawlessness due to the absence or inefficiency of the supreme power; political disorder."[3]"Absence or non-recognition of authority and order in any given sphere."[4]"Acting without waiting for instructions or official permission... The root of anarchism is the single impulse to do it yourself: everything else follows from this." [5]
    Anarchy
  6. Political system where the state, usually under the control of a single political person, faction, or class, recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to regulate every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
    Totalitarianism
  7. Political power is concentrated in a leader or leaders, typically unelected, who possess exclusive, unaccountable, and arbitrary power.
    Authoritarianism
  8. A political form of government where governing power is derived from the people, either by direct referendum or by means of elected representatives of the people.
    Democracy
  9. The belief or attitude that some individuals, who supposedly form an elite — a select group of people with intellect, wealth, specialized training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are those whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously or carry the most weight or those who view their own views as so; whose views and/or actions are most likely to be constructive to society as a whole; or whose extraordinary skills, abilities or wisdom render them especially fit to govern.
    Elitism
  10. Political power in society does not lie with the electorate but is distributed among a wide number of groups.
    Pluralism
  11. Form of government in which the people or some portion thereof retain supreme control over the government, and in which the head of government is not a monarch.
    Republic
  12. Form of government founded on the principal of elected individuals representing the people, as opposed to autocracy and direct democracy.
    Representative Democracy
  13. Form of democracy and a theory of civics in which sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of allcitizens who choose to participate.
    Direct Democracy
  14. The popular acceptance of a governing law or régime as an authority. Whereas “authority” denotes a specific position in an established government, the term “legitimacy” denotes a system of government — wherein “government” denotes “sphere of influence”.
    Legitimacy
  15. The traditional orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, affecting their perceptions of political legitimacy.
    Political Culture
  16. An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are privately owned and operated for a private profit; decisions regarding supply, demand, price, distribution, and investments are made by private actors in the market rather than by central planningby the government; profit is distributed to owners who invest in businesses, and wages are paid to workers employed by businesses.
    Capitalism
  17. An economic and political theory advocating public or common ownership and cooperative management of the means of productionand allocation of resources.
    Socialism
  18. Belief that every person's vote counts equally.
    Political Equality
  19. The ideal of limited government and liberty of individuals including freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and free markets.
    Classical Liberalism
  20. The psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true.
    Beliefs
  21. An absolute or relative ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action.
    Values
  22. The principle under which each individual is subject to the same laws, with no individual or group having special legal privileges. No one is exempt or included more than another.
    Equality Under the Law
  23. Equal sharing of income and material goods regardless of one's efforts in life.
    Equality of Results
  24. Elimination of artificial barriers to success in life and the opportunity for everyone to strive for success.
    Equality of Opportunity
  25. Comprises all disparities in the distribution of economic assets and income.
    Income Gap
  26. Its Citizenship Clause provides a broad definition of citizenship that overruled the decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), which held that blacks could not be citizens of the United States.Its Due Process Clause prohibits state and local governments from depriving persons (individual and corporate) of life, liberty, or property without certain steps being taken. This clause has been used to make most of the Bill of Rights applicable to the states, as well as to recognizesubstantive rights and procedural rights.Its Equal Protection Clause requires each state to provide equal protection under the law to all people within its jurisdiction. This clause later became the basis for Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Supreme Court decision which precipitated the dismantling of racial segregation in the United States.The amendment also includes a number of clauses dealing with the Confederacy and its officials.
    14th Amendment
  27. Extent to which people move upward or downward in income and status over a lifetime or over generations.
    Social Mobility
  28. Consistent and integrated system of ideas, values, and beliefs.
    Ideology
  29. Belief in the value of strong government to provide economic security and protection for civil rights, combined with a belief in personal freedom from government intervention in social conduct.
    Liberal
  30. Belief in the value of free markets, limited government, and individual self-reliance in economic affairs, combined with a belief in the value of tradition, law, and morality in social affairs.
    Conservative
  31. Opposing government intervention in both economic and social affairs, and favoring minimal government in all sectors of society.
    Libertarian
  32. A political philosophy that emerged in the United States of America, which supports using modern American economic and military power to bring liberalism, democracy, and human rights to other countries.
    Neoconservative
  33. A market-driven approach to economic and social policy based on neoclassical theories of economics that maximise the role of the private business sector in determining the political and economic priorities of the state.
    Neoliberal
  34. Widely known as the Father of Liberalism.
    John Locke
  35. An English philosopher, remembered today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory.
    Thomas Hobbes
  36. A major government public inquiry into an issue.
    Royal Commissions
  37. In medieval Europe, these were used to create cities (i.e., localities with recognised legal rights and privileges).
    Royal Charters
  38. Gave governing authority to the proprietor, who determined the form of government, chose the officers, and made laws, subject to the advice and consent of the freemen.
    Proprietary Charters
  39. A statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that thethirteen American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire.
    Declaration of Independence
  40. Form of government where anymore than minimal governmental intervention in personal liberties and the economy is not usually allowed by law, usually in a writtenConstitution.
    Limited Government
  41. The first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the colonists, later together known to history as the Pilgrims, who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower.
    Mayflower Compact
  42. An English charter, originally issued in the year 1215, and reissued later in the 13th century in modified versions which omit certain temporary provisions, including the most direct challenges to the monarch's authority.
    Magna Carta
  43. Often cited as symbolic of the transfer of American allegiance from the person of the king to the concept of constitutional rights.
    Charter Oak Affair
  44. A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine. It was first published anonymously on January 10, 1776, during the American Revolution. It presented the American colonists with a powerful argument for independence from British rule at a time when the question of independence was still undecided.
    Common Sense
  45. An armed uprising in central and western Massachusetts (mainly Springfield) from 1786 to 1787.
    Shay's Rebellion
  46. A legal maxim according to which no one is immune to the law.
    Rule of Law
  47. Article Seven sets forth the requirements for ratification of the Constitution. The Constitution would not take effect until at least nine states had ratified the Constitution in state conventions specially convened for that purpose, and it would only apply to those states that ratified it.
    Ratification of Constitution
  48. Supporters of the ratification of the constitution. Supported John Adams in 1800.
    Federalists
  49. Under the Articles, the states retained sovereignty over all governmental functions not specifically relinquished to the national government.
    Articles of Confederation
  50. Legislative Branch
    Article 1
  51. Executive Branch
    Article 2
  52. Judicial Branch
    Article 3
  53. Interstate Relations
    Article 4
  54. Amendments
    Article 5
  55. Supremacy Clause
    Article 6
  56. Ratification
    Article 7
  57. Asserts and establishes the Constitution, the federal laws made in pursuance of the Constitution, and treaties made by the United States with foreign nations as "the Supreme Law of the Land" (using modern capitalization).
    Supremacy Clause
  58. A compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the population ofslaves would be counted for enumeration purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives.
    Three-fifths Compromise
  59. An agreement made among the delegates to the Constitutional Convention that the American government would have two houses in Congress: the Senate where each state has two Senators, and the House of Representatives where each state has a number of Representatives based on population.
    Great Compromise
  60. A proposal by Virginia delegates, drafted by James Madison while he waited for a quorum to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
    Virginia Plan
  61. A proposal for the structure of the United States Government proposed by William Paterson at the Constitutional Convention on June 15, 1787.
    New Jersey Plan

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