Endocrine and cardiovascular system

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Endocrine and cardiovascular system
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2010-09-17 13:02:23
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Endocrine cardiovascular system Beau
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Test 2
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  1. Exocrine Gland
    Secretes products through ducts.

    ex. sweat, sebaceous, mucous, salivary, digestive.
  2. Endocrine Gland
    Secrete hormones into the extracellular spaces around secretory cells.
  3. Endocrine glands secrete hormones that do what?
    • 1. regulate the internal environment
    • 2. Responds to stress (epinephrine)
    • 3. integrate growth and development (HGH)
    • 4. contribute to the reproductive process
    • 5. control metabolism and energy balance.
  4. Heterocrine glands
    both endocrine and exocrine glands. (gonads, pancreatic)
  5. Hormones are classified as:
    • Amines
    • Peptides
    • proteins
    • steroids
  6. Amines
    Simplest hormones, modified from amino acid
  7. Protein and peptide hormones consist of?
    Chains of amino acids
  8. Steroid hormones are derived from?
    Cholesterol which has 4 carbon rings

    Ex. Sex hormones, and cortisol
  9. The amount of hormone release is determines by?
    The bodys need for the hormones at any given time
  10. Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called?
    Target cells
  11. what is found in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of the target cells
    Specific receptors
  12. Most hormones are released in _____________ bursts, with ______or______
    • Short
    • little
    • no
  13. Mechanism that prevents overproduction underproduction of the hormone.
    Negative feedback control
  14. small bean sized gland located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
    Pituitary gland
  15. The pituitary is connected to the ____________of the brain by by a stalk-like structure called the_________
    • Hypothalamus
    • Infindibulum
  16. The pituitary gland is divided into:
    • Anterior lobe / adenohypophysis
    • Posterior lobe / Neurohypophysis
  17. Adenohypophysis
    larger and glandular portion
  18. Neurohypophysis
    Smaller and neural portion
  19. Anterior lobe releases ___________that regulate
    hormones
  20. anterior lobe hormones release how many regulating hormones? Produced by ___?
    • 9
    • hypothalmus
  21. Blood supply to the anterior lobe
    Superior hypophyseal arteries
  22. anterior/ adenohypophysis produces which hormones
    • Thyroid stimulating
    • melanocyte stimulating
    • adrenocorticotropic stimulating hormone
    • Prolactin
    • Human Growth Hormone
    • Follicle stimulating hormone
    • Follicle stimulating hormone
    • Luteinizing hormone
  23. Thyroid stimulating hormone
    stimulated the thyroid glands
  24. melanocyte stimulating hormone
    Increase skin darkness
  25. Adrenocorticotropic hormone
    stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland
  26. prolactin or lactogenic hormone
    helps initiate milk production in the breast.
  27. HGH
    stimulates body growth
  28. Follicle stimulating
    regulates the activities of the gonads
  29. Luteinizing hormone
    also regulates activities in the gonads.
  30. Luteinizing and FSH are often termed?
    gonadotropic hormones
  31. posterior lobe / neuropophysis recieves stimulation by way of ?
    Nerve tracts from the hypothalmus
  32. Posterior lobe releases __ hormones. They are?
    • 2
    • Antidiuretic
    • Oxytocin
  33. Antidiuretic Hormone
    stimulates water reabsorbtion by the kidneys
  34. Oxytocin
    stimulates the contraction of the uterus
  35. Where is the thyoid gland located?
    just below the larynx.
  36. Thyroid gland is shaped like? What is it connected by?
    • butterfly
    • isthmus
  37. Thyroid consist of?
    the follicular cells
  38. thyroid follicular cells secrete?
    parafollicular cells secrete?
    thyroxin(T4) and Tridothronine (T3)

    Calcitonin
  39. Thyroid hormones regulate?
    metabolism, energy balance, growth and development, and influence activity of the nervous system.
  40. T3 molecule has __atoms of iodine?
    T4?
    • 3
    • 4
  41. Most of the bodys iodine is stored where?
    Thyroid gland
  42. Calcitonin helps maintain
    • homeostasis of calcium and phosphates in blood
    • deposition of calcium in bone
  43. Parathyroids are where?
    posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid
  44. Parathyroid hormone or parathormone acts with calcitonin to
    • regulate the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate
    • cause the release of calcium from bone
  45. Adrenal gland are located where?
    fat pads superior to the kidneys.
  46. Adrenal glands consist of?
    Outer cortex and inner medulla
  47. 3 cortical hormones
    • mineralocorticoids
    • glucocoticoids
    • gonadocorticoids
  48. Mineralocorticoid
    Aldosterone- regulates water and sodium and potassium levels in the body
  49. Glucocorticoid
    cortisone- promotes resistance to stress and serve as anti-inflamitories
  50. Gonadocorticoids
    Sex hormones produced by the adrenal cortex in both sexes
  51. Medullary hormones
    • Epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine
    • fight-or-flight
  52. Pancreas lies where?
    Underneath the stomach
  53. what kinds of glands is the pancreas
    Heterocrine
  54. Histologically the pancreas consists of?
    Endocrine cells (pancreatic islets/islets of langerhans) and exocrine cells (acini)
  55. # types of pancreatic cells
    • Alpha
    • Beta
    • Delta
  56. Alpha cells
    Secrete glucagon which increases the blood glucose level.
  57. Beta Cells
    Secretes insulin which decreases the blood glucose level
  58. Delta Cells
    secretes growth inhibiting hormone that inhibits tissue growth decreasing the production of hgh.
  59. Androgenous
    male characteristics
  60. Androgynous
    Mixed male and female characteristics
  61. Where is the pineal gland located?
    What is it shaped like?
    the third ventricle of the brain. It is shaped like a pine cone.
  62. What does pineal gland secrete?
    Melatonin during darkness.
  63. What shape is the thymus?
    It is bilobed and located in the superior mediastinum behind the sternum.
  64. What does the thymus secrete?
    Thymic humoral factor and the thymic factor which is developed by the lymphocytes.
  65. Disorders like dwarfism, giantism, acromegaly are associated with what?
    Anterior pituitary and is also associated with HGH.
  66. What is he most common disorder of the posterior pituitary?
    Diabetes insipidus which causes polyuria and severe dehydration.
  67. what results in hyperglycemia because of the inability of the pancreatic beta cells to produce inulin?
    Diabetes mellitus
  68. What results from the under secretion of thyroxin during infancy?
    Cretinism
  69. What results from the under secretion of thyroxin during adulthood?
    Myxedema
  70. Enlarged thyroid glands
    Goiters- caused by lack of iodine in the diet.
  71. What is graves disease characterized by?
    Exophthalmos(gas bulge), a high metabolic rate, and heat intolerance.
  72. Over secretion of cortisone
    Cushings syndrome
  73. What is cushings system characterized by?
    spindly legs, moon face, bufalo hump, pendulous abdomen, and striae
  74. Cardiovascular system consists of?
    • Blood
    • heart
    • blood vessels
  75. The cardiovascular system is related to?
    Lymphatic system
  76. Hematology
    The study of blood
  77. blood characteristics
    opaque, sticky, viscous
  78. Blood accounts for __% of the total body weight.

    What kind of tissue is it?
    • 8%
    • Liquid connective
  79. pH of blood
    Sightly alkaline (7.35-7.45)
  80. Functions of blood
    • Oxygen transport
    • carbon dioxide transport
    • transport of nutrients
    • transport of waste products
    • transports hormones from the endocrine glands to target cells
    • transports enzymes to target cells
    • regulates temp & pH
    • Protects against blood loss and from foreign bodys
  81. Components of blood
    • formed elements- 45% blood cells
    • plasma- 55% fluid with clotting elements
  82. plasma
    • 7% protein(clotting elements)
    • when clotting elements are removed, the fluid is called serum.
  83. Blood cells are produced through which process
    Hemopoesis
  84. Three major types of blood cells
    • RBC
    • WBC
    • Platelets(thrombocytes)
  85. Where do the blood cells from?
    • RBC-myeloid tissue
    • WBC- myeloid tissue and lymphoid tissue
    • Platelets- myeloid tissue
  86. Red blood cells are formed in a process called?
    Erythropoesis
  87. RBCs structure
    • Biconcave 8 micrometers
    • Lack nuclei
    • contain hemoglobin
  88. Globin
    4 polypeptide chains carrier CO2.
  89. Heme
    Contains iron, carries O2
  90. RBCs live for how long
    120 days
  91. Average number of RBCs in adults
    • 5 million per cubic MM
    • Slightly more in males
  92. The primordial (first) blood cells
    hemocytoblasts
  93. immature RBC
    Reticulocyte
  94. erythropoiesis
    Production of RBCs
  95. hemetocrit
    measures the percentage of RBCs in whole blood
  96. percentage of RBC in
    Males?
    Females?
    • males: 47%
    • Females: 42%
  97. Leukocytes
    White blood cells
  98. how long do leukocytes live for?
    several hour to several days
  99. Two types of leukocytes
    • Grandular
    • Agrandular
  100. Grandular leukocytes
    • Dot in cytoplasm
    • Develop in bone marrow
    • has granules or strippling in the cytoplasm
    • possesses lobed nuclei
  101. Types of Leukocytes
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
    • Neutrophils
  102. Eosinophiles
    Cytoplasmic granules, stains orange, loves acid
  103. Basophils
    granules stain dark purple
  104. Neutrophils
    • Stain very light blue
    • polymorphs- many forms of nuclei
  105. Agrandular Leukocytes
    • develop in bone marrow and lymph tissue
    • Do no have granules
  106. Types of Agrandular
    • Lymphocyte
    • Monocyte
  107. Functions of WBCs
    • Phagocytosis
    • Chemotaxis
    • defensins
    • antihistamines
    • antibodies
  108. Diapedesis
    movement of WBCs through capillary wall
  109. Wandering microphages
    WBCs that move in the extravascular space disposing of dead or foreign matter
  110. Way to get the WBC count
    CBC with the differential
  111. Increased neutrophils
    neutrophilia- acute bacterial infections
  112. Eosinophilia
    • allergic reactions
    • internal parasites
  113. basophilia
    cancer or leukemia
  114. lymphocytosis
    acute viral infections
  115. monocytosis
    chronic infections
  116. Thrombocytes
    • platelets
    • fragments of giant cells called megakaryocytes
  117. thrombocytes characteristics
    • anucleated
    • normal count is between 250-400 thousand cubic mm (VERY IMPORTANT TO SURGEONS)
  118. Homostasis
    stoppage of bleeding
  119. Vascular spasm
    the constriction of smoothe muscles in blood vessels
  120. Platelet plug formation
    Platelet adhesion- accumulation of thrombocytes in great numbers

    Platelet release reaction- become sticky

    Platelet aggregation- reinforced with fibrin threads
  121. Coagulation process
    blood clot is formed
  122. Extrinsic pathway
    initiated by chemicals outside the blood
  123. intrinsic pathway
    initiated by platelets inside the blood vessels
  124. platelets and plasma are trying to produce
    thrombin which forms fibrin
  125. The repaired tissue dissolves the scab. (the process)
    Fibrinolysis
  126. In the ABO system,incompatible reactions happen when ________ occurs
    Agglutination- red cells sticking to each other
  127. Person with AB blood is __?
    o?
    • Universal recipient
    • Universal donor
  128. Rh pos. individuals have?
    Rh antigen- about 85% of the population
  129. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    fetus is Rh pos and mother is Rh neg
  130. To prevent HDN
    RhoGAM
  131. In order to avoid adverse transfusion reactions
    crossmatching
  132. lymph and plasma are different because
    lymph contains less protein then plasma

    Lymph possesses a variable number of WBCs

    Lymph does not contain RBCs or platelets
  133. Anemia
    decreased RBC count
  134. pernicious anememia
    lack of intrinsic factor which is needed for b-12 production.
  135. Hemorrhagic anemia
    loss of blood
  136. occult bleeding
    hidden blood loss which occurs in the gut
  137. hemolytic anemia
    fragile RBCs that easily rupture
  138. Aplastic anemia
    destruction of bone marrow
  139. sickle-cell anemia
    abnormally shaped RBCs
  140. Polycythemia
    abnormal increase in RBCs
  141. mononucleosis
    caused by epstein barr virus. High percentage of lymphocytes (NOT MONOCYTES)
  142. Leukemia
    Malignant disease of the blood forming tissues
  143. Hemophilia
    hemophilia A- factor VIII is absent
  144. Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel
    Thrombosis
  145. A thrombus that moves from its site of origin
    Embolus
  146. Thrombolytic (Clot dissolving) agents
    • chemical substances injected into the body.
    • Streptokinase is commonly used
  147. Clot preventers
    Heparin & Coumadin

    They are not blood thinners

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