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Secretes products through ducts.
ex. sweat, sebaceous, mucous, salivary, digestive.
Secrete hormones into the extracellular spaces around secretory cells.
Endocrine glands secrete hormones that do what?
- 1. regulate the internal environment
- 2. Responds to stress (epinephrine)
- 3. integrate growth and development (HGH)
- 4. contribute to the reproductive process
- 5. control metabolism and energy balance.
both endocrine and exocrine glands. (gonads, pancreatic)
Hormones are classified as:
Simplest hormones, modified from amino acid
Protein and peptide hormones consist of?
Chains of amino acids
Steroid hormones are derived from?
Cholesterol which has 4 carbon rings
Ex. Sex hormones, and cortisol
The amount of hormone release is determines by?
The bodys need for the hormones at any given time
Cells that respond to the effects of hormones are called?
what is found in the plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus of the target cells
Most hormones are released in _____________ bursts, with ______or______
Mechanism that prevents overproduction underproduction of the hormone.
Negative feedback control
small bean sized gland located in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone
The pituitary is connected to the ____________of the brain by by a stalk-like structure called the_________
The pituitary gland is divided into:
- Anterior lobe / adenohypophysis
- Posterior lobe / Neurohypophysis
larger and glandular portion
Smaller and neural portion
Anterior lobe releases ___________that regulate
anterior lobe hormones release how many regulating hormones? Produced by ___?
Blood supply to the anterior lobe
Superior hypophyseal arteries
anterior/ adenohypophysis produces which hormones
- Thyroid stimulating
- melanocyte stimulating
- adrenocorticotropic stimulating hormone
- Human Growth Hormone
- Follicle stimulating hormone
- Follicle stimulating hormone
- Luteinizing hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
stimulated the thyroid glands
melanocyte stimulating hormone
Increase skin darkness
stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland
prolactin or lactogenic hormone
helps initiate milk production in the breast.
stimulates body growth
regulates the activities of the gonads
also regulates activities in the gonads.
Luteinizing and FSH are often termed?
posterior lobe / neuropophysis recieves stimulation by way of ?
Nerve tracts from the hypothalmus
Posterior lobe releases __ hormones. They are?
stimulates water reabsorbtion by the kidneys
stimulates the contraction of the uterus
Where is the thyoid gland located?
just below the larynx.
Thyroid gland is shaped like? What is it connected by?
Thyroid consist of?
the follicular cells
thyroid follicular cells secrete?
parafollicular cells secrete?
thyroxin(T4) and Tridothronine (T3)
Thyroid hormones regulate?
metabolism, energy balance, growth and development, and influence activity of the nervous system.
T3 molecule has __atoms of iodine?
Most of the bodys iodine is stored where?
Calcitonin helps maintain
- homeostasis of calcium and phosphates in blood
- deposition of calcium in bone
Parathyroids are where?
posterior surfaces of the lateral lobes of the thyroid
Parathyroid hormone or parathormone acts with calcitonin to
- regulate the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate
- cause the release of calcium from bone
Adrenal gland are located where?
fat pads superior to the kidneys.
Adrenal glands consist of?
Outer cortex and inner medulla
3 cortical hormones
Aldosterone- regulates water and sodium and potassium levels in the body
cortisone- promotes resistance to stress and serve as anti-inflamitories
Sex hormones produced by the adrenal cortex in both sexes
- Epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine
Pancreas lies where?
Underneath the stomach
what kinds of glands is the pancreas
Histologically the pancreas consists of?
Endocrine cells (pancreatic islets/islets of langerhans) and exocrine cells (acini)
# types of pancreatic cells
Secrete glucagon which increases the blood glucose level.
Secretes insulin which decreases the blood glucose level
secretes growth inhibiting hormone that inhibits tissue growth decreasing the production of hgh.
Mixed male and female characteristics
Where is the pineal gland located?
What is it shaped like?
the third ventricle of the brain. It is shaped like a pine cone.
What does pineal gland secrete?
Melatonin during darkness.
What shape is the thymus?
It is bilobed and located in the superior mediastinum behind the sternum.
What does the thymus secrete?
Thymic humoral factor and the thymic factor which is developed by the lymphocytes.
Disorders like dwarfism, giantism, acromegaly are associated with what?
Anterior pituitary and is also associated with HGH.
What is he most common disorder of the posterior pituitary?
Diabetes insipidus which causes polyuria and severe dehydration.
what results in hyperglycemia because of the inability of the pancreatic beta cells to produce inulin?
What results from the under secretion of thyroxin during infancy?
What results from the under secretion of thyroxin during adulthood?
Enlarged thyroid glands
Goiters- caused by lack of iodine in the diet.
What is graves disease characterized by?
Exophthalmos(gas bulge), a high metabolic rate, and heat intolerance.
Over secretion of cortisone
What is cushings system characterized by?
spindly legs, moon face, bufalo hump, pendulous abdomen, and striae
Cardiovascular system consists of?
The cardiovascular system is related to?
The study of blood
opaque, sticky, viscous
Blood accounts for __% of the total body weight.
What kind of tissue is it?
pH of blood
Sightly alkaline (7.35-7.45)
Functions of blood
- Oxygen transport
- carbon dioxide transport
- transport of nutrients
- transport of waste products
- transports hormones from the endocrine glands to target cells
- transports enzymes to target cells
- regulates temp & pH
- Protects against blood loss and from foreign bodys
Components of blood
- formed elements- 45% blood cells
- plasma- 55% fluid with clotting elements
- 7% protein(clotting elements)
- when clotting elements are removed, the fluid is called serum.
Blood cells are produced through which process
Three major types of blood cells
Where do the blood cells from?
- RBC-myeloid tissue
- WBC- myeloid tissue and lymphoid tissue
- Platelets- myeloid tissue
Red blood cells are formed in a process called?
- Biconcave 8 micrometers
- Lack nuclei
- contain hemoglobin
4 polypeptide chains carrier CO2.
Contains iron, carries O2
RBCs live for how long
Average number of RBCs in adults
- 5 million per cubic MM
- Slightly more in males
The primordial (first) blood cells
Production of RBCs
measures the percentage of RBCs in whole blood
percentage of RBC in
White blood cells
how long do leukocytes live for?
several hour to several days
- Dot in cytoplasm
- Develop in bone marrow
- has granules or strippling in the cytoplasm
- possesses lobed nuclei
Types of Leukocytes
Cytoplasmic granules, stains orange, loves acid
granules stain dark purple
- Stain very light blue
- polymorphs- many forms of nuclei
- develop in bone marrow and lymph tissue
- Do no have granules
Functions of WBCs
movement of WBCs through capillary wall
WBCs that move in the extravascular space disposing of dead or foreign matter
Way to get the WBC count
CBC with the differential
neutrophilia- acute bacterial infections
- allergic reactions
- internal parasites
cancer or leukemia
acute viral infections
- fragments of giant cells called megakaryocytes
- normal count is between 250-400 thousand cubic mm (VERY IMPORTANT TO SURGEONS)
stoppage of bleeding
the constriction of smoothe muscles in blood vessels
Platelet plug formation
Platelet adhesion- accumulation of thrombocytes in great numbers
Platelet release reaction- become sticky
Platelet aggregation- reinforced with fibrin threads
blood clot is formed
initiated by chemicals outside the blood
initiated by platelets inside the blood vessels
platelets and plasma are trying to produce
thrombin which forms fibrin
The repaired tissue dissolves the scab. (the process)
In the ABO system,incompatible reactions happen when ________ occurs
Agglutination- red cells sticking to each other
Person with AB blood is __?
- Universal recipient
- Universal donor
Rh pos. individuals have?
Rh antigen- about 85% of the population
Hemolytic disease of the newborn
fetus is Rh pos and mother is Rh neg
In order to avoid adverse transfusion reactions
lymph and plasma are different because
lymph contains less protein then plasma
Lymph possesses a variable number of WBCs
Lymph does not contain RBCs or platelets
decreased RBC count
lack of intrinsic factor which is needed for b-12 production.
loss of blood
hidden blood loss which occurs in the gut
fragile RBCs that easily rupture
destruction of bone marrow
abnormally shaped RBCs
abnormal increase in RBCs
caused by epstein barr virus. High percentage of lymphocytes (NOT MONOCYTES)
Malignant disease of the blood forming tissues
hemophilia A- factor VIII is absent
Clotting in an unbroken blood vessel
A thrombus that moves from its site of origin
Thrombolytic (Clot dissolving) agents
- chemical substances injected into the body.
- Streptokinase is commonly used
Heparin & Coumadin
They are not blood thinners