PSC 101: chapter 3

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realdeal
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34940
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PSC 101: chapter 3
Updated:
2010-09-15 17:17:44
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UNLV Political Science
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This covers key concepts and key words from chapter 3
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  1. Federalism:
    A system of government in which power is divided, by a constitution, between a central government and regional governments.
  2. Unitary System:
    A centralized government system in which lower levels of government have little power independent of the national government.
  3. Federal System:
    A system of government in which the national government shares power with lower levels of government, such as states.
  4. Expressed Powers:
    specific powers granted by the Constitution to Congress(Article I, Section 8), and to the president (Article II).
  5. Implied Powers:
    Powers derived from the necessary and proper clause of Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution. Such powers are not specifically expressed, but are implied through the expansive interpretation of delegated powers.
  6. Necessary and Proper Clause:
    Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, it provides Congress with the authority to make all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out its expressed powers.
  7. Reserved Powers:
    powers, derived from the Tenth Amendment to the constitution, that are not specifically delegated to the national government or denied to the states.
  8. Police Power:
    power reserved to the state government to regulate the health, safety, and morals of its citizens.
  9. Concurrent Powers:
    Authority possessed by both state and national governments, such as the power to levy taxes.
  10. Full Faith and Credit Clause:
    provision from Article IV, Section 1, of the Constitution, requiring that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in another state.
  11. Privileges and Immunities Clause:
    Provision from Article IV, Section 2, of the Constitution, that a state cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges.
  12. Home Rule:
    Power delegated by the state to a local unit of government to manage its own affairs.
  13. Dual Federalism:
    The system of government that prevailed in the United States from 1789 to 1937, in which most fundamental governmental powers were shared between the federal and state governments.
  14. Commerce Clause:
    Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution, which delegates to Congress the power "to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States and with the Indian tribes." This clause was interpreted by the Supreme Court in favor of national power over the economy.
  15. States' Rights:
    The principle that the states should oppose the increasing authority of the national government, This principle was most popular in the period before the Civil War.
  16. Devolution:
    A policy to remove a program from one level of government by delegating it or passing it down to a lower level of government, such as from the national government to the state and local governments.
  17. Grants-in-aid:
    Programs through which Congress provides money to state and local governments on the condition that the funds be employed for purposes defined by the federal government.
  18. Categorical Grants:
    Congressional grants given to states and localities on the condition that expenditures be limited to a problem or group specified by law.
  19. Project Grants:
    Grant programs in which sate and local government submit proposals to federal agencies and for which funding is provide on a competitive basis.
  20. Formula Grants:
    Grants-in-aid in which a formula is used to determine the amount of federal funds a state or local government will receive.
  21. Cooperative Federalism:
    A type of federalism existing since the New Deal era in which grants-in-aid have been used strategically to encourage states and localities (without commanding them) to pursue nationally defined goals. Also known as "intergovernmental cooperation."
  22. Regulated Federalism:
    A form of federalism in which Congress imposes legislation on states and localities, requiring them to meet national standards.
  23. Preemption:
    The principle that allows the national government to override state or local actions in certain policy areas.
  24. Unfunded Mandates:
    Regulation or conditions for receiving grants that impose costs on state and local government for which they are not reimbursed by the federal government.
  25. Block Grants:
    Federal grants-in-aid that allow states considerable discretion in how the funds are spent.
  26. New Federalism:
    Attempts by Presidents Nixon and Reagan to return power to the states through block grants.
  27. General Revenue Sharing:
    The process by which one unit of government yields a portion of its tax income to another unit of government, according to an established formula. Revenue sharing typically involves the national government providing money to state governments.
  28. Redistributive Programs:
    Economic policies designed to control the economy through taxing and spending, with the goal of benefiting the poor.

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