Human Biology

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Human Biology
2010-09-23 19:01:18
Biology Exam

Ch 1 Intro to Biology, Ch 2 Chemistry, Ch 3 The Cell
Show Answers:

  1. List the characteristics of life...there are 7
    (Know an example of each)
    • nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids...(ex. DNA)
    • composed of cells...(ex. red blood cells)
    • grow & reproduce...(ex. humans)
    • use energy and raw materials...(ex. food, leaves to eat by monkeys)
    • respond to their environments...(ex. lizard sees food, catches it and eats it)
    • maintain homeostasis...(ex. humans maintain temp of 98.5 degrees)
    • Populations evolve and have adaptive traits...(ex. orchid lives on a tree branch)
  2. Name the 3 domains of Organisms
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
    • Eukarya
  3. Describe the general characteristics of the organisms in each domain
    • Bacteria- cells w/o a nucleus; many things that cause infections
    • Archaea- cells w/o a nuleus; live in extreme environments and have some odd characteristics
    • Eukarya- cells w/ a nucleus; more complex organisms. Humans are found here
  4. What are the 3 levels of organization of life?
    • cellular level
    • organismal level
    • populational level
  5. Define: the cellular level

    (give an example)
    • contains: atoms, molecules, macromolecules, organelles, and cells

  6. Define : the organismal level

    (give an example)
    tissues, organ systems, organisms

    ex. a human
  7. Define: the populational level

    (give an example)
    population, species, community, ecosystem

    ex. plants, soil, water, humans
  8. Define: Matter
    anything that takes up space and has mass
  9. Define: atom
    units of matter that can't be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
  10. Define: element
    a "pure" form of matter containing only one kind of atom
  11. Where is an electron located in an atom?
    outside the nucleus (outsermost shell)
  12. Where is a neutron located in an atom?
    the nucleus
  13. Where is a proton located in an atom?
    the nucleus
  14. A.) What is a protons mass?
    B.) What is a protons charge?
    • A.) 1 atomic mass unit
    • B.) positive
  15. A.) What is an electrons mass?
    B.) What is an electrons charge?
    • A.) so small we consider it "0"
    • B.) negative
  16. On the periodic table, what does the atomic # mean?
    tells you how many protons are in the element
  17. On the periodic table, what does the mass # mean?
    tells you the mass #.... # of protons + # of nuetrons
  18. How are negative ions generated?
    there are FEWER protons than electrons in the atom
  19. How are positive ions generated?
    there are MORE protons than electrons in the atom
  20. Define: isotope
    atoms that have the same # of protons but different # of neutrons
  21. How do isotopes occur?
    they are naturally occuring and can also be man made
  22. What are 3 uses of isotopes?
    medical, nuclear power, nuclear weapons
  23. How is an ionic bond formed?
    the transfers of electrons from one atom to another
  24. How is a polar covalent bond formed?
    electrons in a covalent bond are shared unequally
  25. How is a nonpolar covalent bond formed?
    electrons are shared equally!
  26. What are electron shells?
    3D shell that electrons move around
  27. What is a single covalent bond?
    2 electrons are shared between atoms
  28. What is a double covalent bond?
    4 electrons are shared between atoms
  29. What is a triple covalent bond?
    6 electrons are shared between atoms
  30. How do polar covalent bonds lead to hydrogen bonding in water?
    oxygen takes on a slightly positive charge and the hydrogen atom takes on a slightly negative charge
  31. List the unique properties of water
    • 1. excellent solvent
    • 2. prevents drastic changes in body temp
    • 3. High heat of vaporization
    • 4. High surface tension
  32. Define: pH
    the measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in a solution
  33. Define: acid
    • the amount of H in a solution
  34. Define: base
    • the amoun of OH in a solution
  35. Define: buffers
    • keep pH levels from changing drastically
  36. How do buffers work to maintain pH?
    • obsorbs excess H+ or OH-
    • releases extra H+ or OH-
  37. Define: hydrolysis
    the insertion of water to break a chemical bond
  38. Define: dehydration synthesis
    the reaction that bonds 1 monomer covalently to another releases H2O: 1 monomer donates OH, the other donates H

  39. What 6 elements make up most biologically important molecules?
    C H O N P S

    Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur
  40. For proteins define: amino acids
    building blocks of proteins

    consists of: central atom bound to an H atom, an amino acid group (NH2), an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and a side chain

  41. For proteins define: primary structure
    • the sequence of amino acids in a protein
  42. For proteins define: Secondary structure
    the initial folding of the amino acid

  43. For proteins define: tertiary structure
    • held together by hydrogen, ionic, and covalent bonds between amino acids
  44. For Proteins define: Quaternary structure
    • the combining of the assembled subunits
  45. For proteins define: denaturation
    changes in the environment of a protein. such as increased heat or changes in pH can ause the molecule to unravel and lose its 3D shade ....... egg > cook with heat, changes its structure
  46. How are peptide bonds formed?
    • a C atom and a N atom are brought together by hydration synthesis
  47. Define and give the 2 types of secondary structure of proteins
    Alpha helix - coils formed in the amino acid chain (looks like a spring)

    • Beta sheets - folds formed within the amino acid chain (looks like folded paper)

  48. How do enzymes work to decrease the energy required to perform a chemical reaction?
    act upon a substrate to ensure the substrates are in proper position for reaction to occur
  49. Define: nucleotide
    • building blocks of nucelic acids
  50. Define: nucleic acid
    polymers that serve as the genetic material (DNA) & copies of the genetic material (RNA)
  51. What is the importance of ATP?
  52. What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
    DNA - double stranded, deoxyribose, thymine

    RNA - single stranded, ribose, uracil
  53. For carbohydrates define: monosaccharide

    ( give 2 examples )
    simple sugars, the smallest of the sugars

    • -glucose
    • -fructose
    • -galactose
  54. For Carbohydrates define: oligosaccharide

    ( give 2 examples )
    short chains of sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis

    • -sucrose
    • -lactose
    • -maltose
  55. Define: polysaccharide

    ( give 4 examples )
    largest of the sugars ... are many many many monosaccharides linked together

    • -starch
    • - glycogen
    • - cellulose
    • - chitin
  56. What is the structure for triglycerides?
    one molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids
  57. What is the structure for phospholipids?
    • made up of the glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids
  58. What is the structure of steroids?
    made up of 4 carbon rings attached to molecules
  59. What is the function of phospholipids?
    builds the bulk of the strcuture of the cell membrane
  60. What is the function of triglycerides?
    • glycerol molecule linked to 3 long chains of fatty acids
  61. What is the function of steroids?
    • anti-inflammatory
    • muscle building

    ex. cortisol, anabolic
  62. What are nonsaturated fats?
    bonds that aren't completely saturated with hydrogen
  63. What are saturated fats?
    all available bonds are saturated with H
  64. What are trans fats?
    unsaturated fats that are treated with MORE H to have a more solid structure
  65. What is the difference between saturated fats, unsaturated fats, and trans fats?
    saturated fats are compressed tightly and are solid

    unsaturated fats aren't compressed as tightly and are more fluid

    • trans fats are unsaturated fats compressed a little more to make them more solid
  66. define: phospholipids
    • glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids and negatively charged phosphate group
  67. define: triglycerides
    • fats and acids

  68. Be able to solve a problem like this on test
  69. Give 4 examples of polysaccharides
    • starch
    • glycogen
    • cellulose
    • chitin
  70. How small are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
    • measured in micrometers prokaryotic = 1-10 across
    • eukaryotic = 10-100 across
  71. Define : surface to volume ratio
    the small size of a cell is shown by a physical relationship
  72. Why does surface to volume ratio limit the size of cells?
    • small cell is more efficiant
    • quicker with a small cell
  73. What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
    • P > circular, absent in membrane-bound organelles, bacteria, archaea
    • E > coiled, present in membrane-bound organelles, plants, animales, fungi
  74. What is the structure and function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
    tubular structure that LACKS ribosomes

    • it detoxifys
  75. What is the structure and function of rough endoplasmic reticulum?
    • ribsomes attached to its surface
    • modifying proteins made by the ribsomes

  76. What is the structure and function of the Golgi body?
    inter connected membranous sacs

    • cells UPS station
  77. What is the structure and function of the plasma membrane?
    • outer covering of the cell
    • communication, structure and transport
  78. What is the structure and function of the nucleus?
    double membrane

    • genetic info is organized
  79. What is the structure and function of intermediate filaments?
    • ropelike fibers
    • fills in space
  80. What is the structure and function of centrioles?
    • conductor of the microtubule
  81. What is the structure and function of flagella?
    • resembles a whip
    • used to propel sperm cells
  82. What is the structure and function of cilia?
    • short hairlike extension on cell surface
    • sweeps away debris
  83. What is the structure and function of microtubules?
    • straight hollow rods
    • structure and movement
  84. What is the structure and function of microfilaments?
    • solid rods
    • in muscle contraction
  85. What is the structure and function of chloroplasts?
    • photosynthesis
  86. What is the structure and function of mitochondria?
    • have their own DNA and ribosomes, 2 membranes(1 outer , 1 inner)
    • produces energy
  87. What is the structure and function of ribosomes?
    • in cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
    • protein synthesis starts here
  88. What is the structure and function of lysosomes?
    • roughly spherical organelles, the cells stomach, recycles
  89. What is the structure and function of the cell wall?
    • to provide structure and shape to the cell
  90. Define: exocytosis
    • opposite of endocytosis. Large molecules leave the cell
  91. Define: pinocytosis
    • takes in water
  92. Define: endocytosis
    • cells finds something and takes it in
  93. Define: phagocytosis
    • takes in bacteria
  94. Define: receptor-mediated endocytosis
    • a cells engulfs something thinking its good b/c of the protein attached to the receptor
  95. Define: hypotonic
    • more water moves IN the bag than out = making it expand
  96. Define: hypertonic
    • more water moves OUT of the bag than in = making the bag shrivel
  97. Define: isotonic
    • water and solute outside the bag are the same as inside = remain the same
  98. Define: osmosis
    • diffusion involves water molecules
  99. Define: active transport
    • moves from very little amt to a lot, REQUIRES energy
  100. Define: facilitated diffusion
    • sugar molecules that must pass through the carrier protein
  101. Define: simple diffusion
    • movement from an area with a lot to an area with a little to try and equal them out.
  102. How many ATP molecules are generated by the citric acid cycle?
  103. Where does the citric acid cycle occur in the cell?
  104. How many ATP molecules are generated by transition reaction?
  105. How many ATP nolecules are generated by the electron transport chain?
  106. Where does the electron transport chain occur in the cell?
  107. Where does transition reaction occur in the cell?
  108. Where does glycolysis occur in the cell?
  109. How many ATP molecules are generated by glycolysis?
  110. What is the valence electron shell?
    outer shell of ANY atom