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List the characteristics of life...there are 7
(Know an example of each)
- nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids...(ex. DNA)
- composed of cells...(ex. red blood cells)
- grow & reproduce...(ex. humans)
- use energy and raw materials...(ex. food, leaves to eat by monkeys)
- respond to their environments...(ex. lizard sees food, catches it and eats it)
- maintain homeostasis...(ex. humans maintain temp of 98.5 degrees)
- Populations evolve and have adaptive traits...(ex. orchid lives on a tree branch)
Name the 3 domains of Organisms
Describe the general characteristics of the organisms in each domain
- Bacteria- cells w/o a nucleus; many things that cause infections
- Archaea- cells w/o a nuleus; live in extreme environments and have some odd characteristics
- Eukarya- cells w/ a nucleus; more complex organisms. Humans are found here
What are the 3 levels of organization of life?
- cellular level
- organismal level
- populational level
Define: the cellular level
(give an example)
- contains: atoms, molecules, macromolecules, organelles, and cells
Define : the organismal level
(give an example)
tissues, organ systems, organisms
ex. a human
Define: the populational level
(give an example)
population, species, community, ecosystem
ex. plants, soil, water, humans
anything that takes up space and has mass
units of matter that can't be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means
a "pure" form of matter containing only one kind of atom
Where is an electron located in an atom?
outside the nucleus (outsermost shell)
Where is a neutron located in an atom?
Where is a proton located in an atom?
A.) What is a protons mass?
B.) What is a protons charge?
- A.) 1 atomic mass unit
- B.) positive
A.) What is an electrons mass?
B.) What is an electrons charge?
- A.) so small we consider it "0"
- B.) negative
On the periodic table, what does the atomic # mean?
tells you how many protons are in the element
On the periodic table, what does the mass # mean?
tells you the mass #.... # of protons + # of nuetrons
How are negative ions generated?
there are FEWER protons than electrons in the atom
How are positive ions generated?
there are MORE protons than electrons in the atom
atoms that have the same # of protons but different # of neutrons
How do isotopes occur?
they are naturally occuring and can also be man made
What are 3 uses of isotopes?
medical, nuclear power, nuclear weapons
How is an ionic bond formed?
the transfers of electrons from one atom to another
How is a polar covalent bond formed?
electrons in a covalent bond are shared unequally
How is a nonpolar covalent bond formed?
electrons are shared equally!
What are electron shells?
3D shell that electrons move around
What is a single covalent bond?
2 electrons are shared between atoms
What is a double covalent bond?
4 electrons are shared between atoms
What is a triple covalent bond?
6 electrons are shared between atoms
How do polar covalent bonds lead to hydrogen bonding in water?
oxygen takes on a slightly positive charge and the hydrogen atom takes on a slightly negative charge
List the unique properties of water
- 1. excellent solvent
- 2. prevents drastic changes in body temp
- 3. High heat of vaporization
- 4. High surface tension
the measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in a solution
- the amount of H in a solution
- the amoun of OH in a solution
- keep pH levels from changing drastically
How do buffers work to maintain pH?
- obsorbs excess H+ or OH-
- releases extra H+ or OH-
the insertion of water to break a chemical bond
Define: dehydration synthesis
the reaction that bonds 1 monomer covalently to another releases H2O: 1 monomer donates OH, the other donates H
What 6 elements make up most biologically important molecules?
C H O N P S
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur
For proteins define: amino acids
building blocks of proteins
consists of: central atom bound to an H atom, an amino acid group (NH2), an acidic carboxyl group (COOH) and a side chain
For proteins define: primary structure
- the sequence of amino acids in a protein
For proteins define: Secondary structure
the initial folding of the amino acid
For proteins define: tertiary structure
- held together by hydrogen, ionic, and covalent bonds between amino acids
For Proteins define: Quaternary structure
- the combining of the assembled subunits
For proteins define: denaturation
changes in the environment of a protein. such as increased heat or changes in pH can ause the molecule to unravel and lose its 3D shade ....... egg > cook with heat, changes its structure
How are peptide bonds formed?
- a C atom and a N atom are brought together by hydration synthesis
Define and give the 2 types of secondary structure of proteins
Alpha helix - coils formed in the amino acid chain (looks like a spring)
- Beta sheets - folds formed within the amino acid chain (looks like folded paper)
How do enzymes work to decrease the energy required to perform a chemical reaction?
act upon a substrate to ensure the substrates are in proper position for reaction to occur
- building blocks of nucelic acids
Define: nucleic acid
polymers that serve as the genetic material (DNA) & copies of the genetic material (RNA)
What is the importance of ATP?
What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
DNA - double stranded, deoxyribose, thymine
RNA - single stranded, ribose, uracil
For carbohydrates define: monosaccharide
( give 2 examples )
simple sugars, the smallest of the sugars
For Carbohydrates define: oligosaccharide
( give 2 examples )
short chains of sugars linked together by dehydration synthesis
( give 4 examples )
largest of the sugars ... are many many many monosaccharides linked together
- - glycogen
- - cellulose
- - chitin
What is the structure for triglycerides?
one molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acids
What is the structure for phospholipids?
- made up of the glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids
What is the structure of steroids?
made up of 4 carbon rings attached to molecules
What is the function of phospholipids?
builds the bulk of the strcuture of the cell membrane
What is the function of triglycerides?
- glycerol molecule linked to 3 long chains of fatty acids
What is the function of steroids?
ex. cortisol, anabolic
- muscle building
What are nonsaturated fats?
bonds that aren't completely saturated with hydrogen
What are saturated fats?
all available bonds are saturated with H
What are trans fats?
unsaturated fats that are treated with MORE H to have a more solid structure
What is the difference between saturated fats, unsaturated fats, and trans fats?
saturated fats are compressed tightly and are solid
unsaturated fats aren't compressed as tightly and are more fluid
- trans fats are unsaturated fats compressed a little more to make them more solid
- glycerol bonded to 2 fatty acids and negatively charged phosphate group
Be able to solve a problem like this on test
Give 4 examples of polysaccharides
How small are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
- measured in micrometers prokaryotic = 1-10 across
- eukaryotic = 10-100 across
Define : surface to volume ratio
the small size of a cell is shown by a physical relationship
Why does surface to volume ratio limit the size of cells?
- small cell is more efficiant
- quicker with a small cell
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
- P > circular, absent in membrane-bound organelles, bacteria, archaea
- E > coiled, present in membrane-bound organelles, plants, animales, fungi
What is the structure and function of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
tubular structure that LACKS ribosomes
- it detoxifys
What is the structure and function of rough endoplasmic reticulum?
- ribsomes attached to its surface
- modifying proteins made by the ribsomes
What is the structure and function of the Golgi body?
inter connected membranous sacs
- cells UPS station
What is the structure and function of the plasma membrane?
- outer covering of the cell
- communication, structure and transport
What is the structure and function of the nucleus?
- genetic info is organized
What is the structure and function of intermediate filaments?
- ropelike fibers
- fills in space
What is the structure and function of centrioles?
- conductor of the microtubule
What is the structure and function of flagella?
- resembles a whip
- used to propel sperm cells
What is the structure and function of cilia?
- short hairlike extension on cell surface
- sweeps away debris
What is the structure and function of microtubules?
- straight hollow rods
- structure and movement
What is the structure and function of microfilaments?
- solid rods
- in muscle contraction
What is the structure and function of chloroplasts?
What is the structure and function of mitochondria?
- have their own DNA and ribosomes, 2 membranes(1 outer , 1 inner)
- produces energy
What is the structure and function of ribosomes?
- in cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum
- protein synthesis starts here
What is the structure and function of lysosomes?
- roughly spherical organelles, the cells stomach, recycles
What is the structure and function of the cell wall?
- to provide structure and shape to the cell
- opposite of endocytosis. Large molecules leave the cell
- takes in water
- cells finds something and takes it in
- takes in bacteria
Define: receptor-mediated endocytosis
- a cells engulfs something thinking its good b/c of the protein attached to the receptor
- more water moves IN the bag than out = making it expand
- more water moves OUT of the bag than in = making the bag shrivel
- water and solute outside the bag are the same as inside = remain the same
- diffusion involves water molecules
Define: active transport
- moves from very little amt to a lot, REQUIRES energy
Define: facilitated diffusion
- sugar molecules that must pass through the carrier protein
Define: simple diffusion
- movement from an area with a lot to an area with a little to try and equal them out.
How many ATP molecules are generated by the citric acid cycle?
Where does the citric acid cycle occur in the cell?
How many ATP molecules are generated by transition reaction?
How many ATP nolecules are generated by the electron transport chain?
Where does the electron transport chain occur in the cell?
Where does transition reaction occur in the cell?
Where does glycolysis occur in the cell?
How many ATP molecules are generated by glycolysis?
What is the valence electron shell?
outer shell of ANY atom
LABEL THE CELL
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