Ch. 5 states zscores
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2 useful purposes of zscores
 1. each zscore tells the exact location of the original X value within the distribution
 2. zscore form a standardized distribution that can be directly compared to other distributions that also have been transformed into zscores

zscore
specifies the precise location of each x value withing a distribution. Always includes a + or  sign

zscores to standardize a distribution: shape
zscore shape will be the same as the original distribution of raw scores

zscores to standardize a distribution: The mean
zscore distribution will always have a mean of 0

zscores to standardize a distribution: standard deviation
distribution of zscores will always have a standard deviation of 1

standard deviation
is composed of scores that have been transformed to create predetermined values for u and o. standardized distributions are used to make dissimilar distributions comparable

procedure for standardizing a distribution to create new values for u and o (2 steps)
 1. the original raw scores are transformed into zscores
 2. the zscores are then transformed into new X values so that the specific u and o are attained

standardizing a sample distribution
 1. the sample of zscores will have the same shape as the original sample of scores
 2. the sample of zscores will have a mean of 0
 3. the sample of zscores will have a standard deviation of 1.