Astronomy 101

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  1. Scientific Method?
    • -Facts/ Observations
    • -Organize ideas/ theory
    • -Predictions & testing
  2. Powers of 10?
    • 10^3 = 1000
    • 10^2 = 100
    • 10^1 = 10
    • 10^0 = 1
    • 10^-1= .1
    • 10^-2=.01
    • 10^-3=.001
  3. What is Celestial sphere? What is Ecliptic? Angle between celestial equation and ecliptic?
    • Imaginary sphere surrounding earth, which all objects in sky were considered attached to.
    • Apparent path of sun, relative to stars on celestial sphere,over course of yr.
    • Angle is 23.5 degrees.
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  4. Responsible for seasons?
    1)Summer Solstice? 2)Winter Solstice?1)Verrnal equinox? 2)Autumal equinox?
    • change in avg temp & length of day due to tilt of earth's axis respect to plane of its orbit.
    • 1)Pt on ecliptic where sun is at northermost pt above celestial equator(near June21)
    • 2)Pt on ecliptic where sun is at sourthermost pt below celestial eq. (near Dec 21)
    • 1) Date when sun crosses celestial eq. moving northward (near march 21)
    • 2) Date when sun crosses celestial eq. moving southward (near sept 22)
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  5. What is Precession?
    • Slow change in the direction of the rotation axis of a spinning object cause by external gravitational influence.
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  6. Moon Phases? New Moon? Quarter Moon? Full Moon?
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    • Appearance of sunlit face of moon at different pts along orbit(seen fr. earth).
    • Phase, none of lunar disk is visible.
    • Phase,moon appears half disk.
    • Phase,appears complete circular disk in sky.
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  7. Eclipse? Lunar Eclipse? Partial Eclipse? Total Eclipse?
    • Event during which one body passes in front of another, so light blocked.
    • Celestial event which moon passes through shadow of earth(temporary darken surface)Celestial event only part of covered body is blocked from view.
    • Celestial event which one body is completely blocked from view by another.
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  8. Measurement of distance. Trangulation?
    • One distance measurement method.
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  9. Parallax?
    • apparent motion of relatively close object w/ respect to a more distance background as the location of the obserber changes.(shift of object from different line of site)
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  10. Retrograde Motion?
    • Backward, westward loop traced out by a planet w/ respect to fixed stars.
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  11. Geocentric Vs Heliocentric
    • Geocentric: model of solar system that holds earth is at enter of universe & all bodies orbit around it.(Aristotle)
    • Heliocentric:model of solar system that is centered on Sun, while earth in motion about sun.(Copernicus)
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  12. Kepler's First Law
    • The orbital paths of planets are elliptical with sun at one focus.
    • Distance from focus to ellipse to other focus stay same.
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  13. Kepler's Second Law
    • Imaginary line connecting the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas of ellipse in equal intervals of time.
    • Swing out equal areas in equal time when close/far to sun.
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  14. Kepler's Third Law and AU?
    • The square of a planet's orbital period is proportional to the cube of its semi major axis.
    • P2(yr)= a3(AU)/ M(M0)

    Average distance btw earth and sun.
  15. Newtons Law One and Two
    • 1)An object at rest remain at rest, moving object continues straight line at constant speed, unless external force changes their state of motion. ( See Pic)
    • 2) The Acceleration(change of speed) of object is directly proportional to the net applied force and inversely proportional to the objects mass.
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  16. Newtons Third Law and Gravity
    • To every action(force) there is an equal and opposite reaction.
    • Force= GM1*M2/r2 (product masses/ distance)
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  17. Light and wavelength
    • Light described as wave.
    • Number of meters needed for wave to repeat itself at given moment in time.
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  18. Electromagnetism
    Union of electricity and magnetism, which don't exist as independent qualities but in reality are two aspects of single physical phenomenon.
  19. Radio, inferred, visible ultraviolet, x-ray, gamma-ray and Frequency
    • Radio(AM FM) Inferred (far near) Visible(micron oms) Ultraviolet (near far) x-ray (soft hard)
    • Number of crest going by in hertz
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  20. Wien's Law and Stefan's Law.
    Wavelength(max) = 0.29 cm/ T (temp)

    F= o T^4
  21. Continuous Spectra
    • spectra in which radiation is distributed over all freqs (EX: blackbody radiation emitted by hot, dense body)
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  22. Emission Lines
    • bright line in specific location of spectrum of radiating material, corresponding to emission o flight at certain freq. (EX: heated gas in glass container)
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  23. Absorption Lines
    • Dark line in an otherwise continuous bright spectrum, where light within one narrow freq range has been removed. (missing lines is emission lines)
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  24. Formation of Spectral Lines
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  25. Astronomical Spectroscopy
    • -Compostion ( what is there)
    • -Abundances ( how much is there)
    • -temp ( wiens law, black body,/other)
    • -pressure ( Broadens lines)
    • - Rotation ( doppler effect)
    • -magnetic field( zeeman effect)
    • -electric field( stark effect)
  26. -Doppler effect
    • (motion towards/ away from obserber)(pitch high toward, low going away)
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  27. Reflecting Telescope
    • Visible light telescope, curved mirror to gather& focus light from distance object.
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  28. Refracting telescope
    • Telescope that uses a lens to gather 7 focus light from distance object.( small ie binoculars) ( no modern research use this )
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  29. Reflect Telescope
    • side eye view mirror
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  30. Refract Telescope
    • see through lens
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  31. Photographic plate? Resolution? Seeing disk? Vermonter?
    • solid glass w. chemical reaction on surface to make permanent record of observation.
    • improved by using larger telescopes and shorter wavelengths.
    • smeared out image of a star in long duration exposure
    • lights at different telescopes and slight different times
  32. infrared telescopes
    • sensitive to longer wavelength radiation, absorbed by atmosphere, not reflect on mirror, SEE THROUGH DUST.
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  33. X ray telescope
    • High energy telescope b/c reflected easily by any kind of surface.
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Astronomy 101
2010-09-15 23:22:08

Astronomy 101 Test 1
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