Chapter 8 articulations
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- Any place where bones come
- Together (meet) not necessarily
How can joints articulate?
- Directly or with
- Cartilage, fluid or fibrous
- Tissue between bones
Name the two joint classifications?
How is the functional category of joints determined?
- By degree of movement
- How tightly bones fit
- Range of motion
What does "arthos" mean?
What are the three categories of functional joints?
What does "syn" mean? What does synarthrosis used to describe?
What are the synarthrosis articulations?
- Epiphyseal cartilage
Where are gomphosis joint found? What are they made of?
- Teeth in jaw
- Suture gomphosis
Define amphiarthrosis? What does "amphi mean?
- Slight movement
- On both sides
Name the fibrous and cartilage articulations of amphiarthrosis?
Where is the syndemosis joint located?
- Tibia and fibula
- Collagen fibers
Where is the symphysis joint located?
- Pubic symphysis
- Invertebral disc
What are the two functional articulations of the axial skeletal system?
What is the appedicular functional articulation?
What does diathrosis mean? What does di mean?
- Freely movable
- Twice=two, seperated
What is another name for diathrosis?
What is the most common type of joint in the body?
Where are shapes of synovial joints? Where are they found?
- Have a variety of shapes
- And permit different types of movements
- Usually found at the end of long bones
- Elbow, knee, shoulder, knuckle
- Hip, thumb, ribs 2-7
What is the main difference between synovial and fibrous joints?
- The existence of capsules surrounding
- The articulating surfaces of a synovial joint
- & the presence of lubricating synovial fluid within
- that capsule (synovial cavity).
Name the unique characteristics of synovial joints?
- Bones are united by capsule (holds fluid)
- Often ligaments (tendons for support)
- Joint cavity with fluid
- Accessory structures
What are the accessory structures of the synovial joints?
- Fat pads
- Cartilage (articular)
- Blood vessels
What is the structure of diarthroses?
- Joint capsule(dense c.t)
- Articulating cartilages(more fluid within matrix)
- Hyaline cartilage on bone ends
- Synovial cavity lined with
- Synovial membrane which secrets
- Synovial fluid
What are is the function of synovial fluid?
- Lubrication (virtually frictionless)
- Nourishes chondrocytes
- Shock absorber/distributer
- Packets of synovial fluid in
- Envelope lined by synovial
Name the three types of synovial joint movements?
Define linear movement?
- Gliding, sliding
- Movement slight
What bones have linear movement?
- Carpal bones, tarsal bones
- Clavicle & sternum
What are the five angular movements?
- Away from the longitundinal axis
Move back to center axis
- In anterior/ posterior plane,
- Reduces angle between
- Articulting bones
Returns to anatomical position
Returns beyond anatomical position
- Right/left "no"
- Internal/external (whole limb)
- Pro=palm down
- Sup=palm up
What are the special movements?
- Dorsiflexion/plantar flexion
- Lateral flexion
What is lateral flexion?
Give an example of opposition?
- Thumbs ability to touch
- Each finger
Give an example of protraction/retraction?
- Protraction (chin moves away from body)
- Retraction (chin moves towards neck)
Give an example of elevation/depression?
- Shrug shoulders (elevation)
- Pull shoulders down (depression)
What are the structural classifications of synovial joints?
- Plane joints
- Condylar (ellipsoidal)
- Ball and socket
Name the plane joints of the structural classification of synovial joints?
Name the hinge joint of the structural classification of synovial joints?
Name the pivot joints of the structural classification of synovial joints?
- Atlas, & axis
- Radius & radical notch
Name the condylar joints of the structural classification of synovial joints?
- Fingers & toes
- Metacarpals & metatarsals
Name the ball & socket joints of the structural classification of synovial joints?
Name the saddle joint of the structural classification of synovial joints?
Base of thumb
Define condyle? Give examples.
- A rounded process that
- Usually articulates with another bone
- Occipital condyle of occipital bone
Define crest? Give example.
- A narrow, ridgelike projection
- Iliac crest of ilium
Define Epicondyle? Give examples.
- A projection situated above a condyle
- Medial epicondyle of humerus
Define fossa? Give examples.
- A relatively deep pit
- Or depression
- Olecranon fossa of humerus
Define trocanter? Give examples.
- A relatively large process
- Greater troncanter of femur
Define tuberosity? Give examples.
- A knoblike process
- Usually larger then a tubercle
- Radial tuberosity of radius
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