Chapter 8 articulations

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12olokun28
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34994
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Chapter 8 articulations
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2010-09-15 19:36:16
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Anatomy
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Chapter 8 articulations
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  1. Define articulations?
    • Any place where bones come
    • Together (meet) not necessarily
    • Movable
  2. How can joints articulate?
    • Directly or with
    • Cartilage, fluid or fibrous
    • Tissue between bones
  3. Name the two joint classifications?
    • Functional
    • Structural
  4. How is the functional category of joints determined?
    • By degree of movement
    • How tightly bones fit
    • Flexibility
    • Range of motion
  5. What does "arthos" mean?
    Joint
  6. What are the three categories of functional joints?
    • Synarthroses
    • Amphiarthroses
    • Diarthroses
  7. What does "syn" mean? What does synarthrosis used to describe?
    • Together
    • No movement
  8. What are the synarthrosis articulations?
    • Epiphyseal cartilage
    • Gomphosis
    • Synostosis
  9. Where are gomphosis joint found? What are they made of?
    • Teeth in jaw
    • Fibrous
    • Suture gomphosis
  10. Define amphiarthrosis? What does "amphi mean?
    • Slight movement
    • On both sides
  11. Name the fibrous and cartilage articulations of amphiarthrosis?
    • Syndesmosis
    • Symphysis
  12. Where is the syndemosis joint located?
    • Tibia and fibula
    • Collagen fibers
  13. Where is the symphysis joint located?
    • Pubic symphysis
    • Invertebral disc
    • Cartilage
  14. What are the two functional articulations of the axial skeletal system?
    • Synarthrosis
    • Amphiarthrosis
  15. What is the appedicular functional articulation?
    Diarthrosis
  16. What does diathrosis mean? What does di mean?
    • Freely movable
    • Twice=two, seperated
  17. What is another name for diathrosis?
    Synovial
  18. What is the most common type of joint in the body?
    Synovial
  19. Where are shapes of synovial joints? Where are they found?
    • Have a variety of shapes
    • And permit different types of movements
    • Usually found at the end of long bones
    • Elbow, knee, shoulder, knuckle
    • Hip, thumb, ribs 2-7
  20. What is the main difference between synovial and fibrous joints?
    • The existence of capsules surrounding
    • The articulating surfaces of a synovial joint
    • & the presence of lubricating synovial fluid within
    • that capsule (synovial cavity).
  21. Name the unique characteristics of synovial joints?
    • Bones are united by capsule (holds fluid)
    • Often ligaments (tendons for support)
    • Joint cavity with fluid
    • Accessory structures
  22. What are the accessory structures of the synovial joints?
    • Bursae
    • Fat pads
    • Cartilage (articular)
    • Nerves
    • Blood vessels
  23. What is the structure of diarthroses?
    • Joint capsule(dense c.t)
    • Articulating cartilages(more fluid within matrix)
    • Hyaline cartilage on bone ends
    • Synovial cavity lined with
    • Synovial membrane which secrets
    • Synovial fluid
  24. What are is the function of synovial fluid?
    • Lubrication (virtually frictionless)
    • Nourishes chondrocytes
    • Shock absorber/distributer
  25. Define bursae?
    • Packets of synovial fluid in
    • Envelope lined by synovial
    • Membrane
  26. Name the three types of synovial joint movements?
    • Linear
    • Angular
    • Rotation
  27. Define linear movement?
    • Gliding, sliding
    • Movement slight
  28. What bones have linear movement?
    • Carpal bones, tarsal bones
    • Clavicle & sternum
  29. What are the five angular movements?
    • Abduction
    • Adduction
    • Flexion
    • Extension
    • Circumduction
  30. Define abduction?
    • Away from the longitundinal axis
    • (midsagittal)
  31. Define adduction?
    Move back to center axis
  32. Define flexion?
    • In anterior/ posterior plane,
    • Reduces angle between
    • Articulting bones
  33. Define extension?
    Returns to anatomical position
  34. Define hyperextension?
    Returns beyond anatomical position
  35. Define circumduction?
    • Arm in loop
    • (circle)
  36. Define rotation?
    • Right/left "no"
    • Internal/external (whole limb)
    • Pronation/supination
    • Pro=palm down
    • Sup=palm up
  37. What are the special movements?
    • Inversion/eversion
    • Dorsiflexion/plantar flexion
    • Lateral flexion
    • Protraction/retraction
    • Opposition
    • Elevation/depression
  38. What is lateral flexion?
    Leaning sideways
  39. Give an example of opposition?
    • Thumbs ability to touch
    • Each finger
  40. Give an example of protraction/retraction?
    • Protraction (chin moves away from body)
    • Retraction (chin moves towards neck)
  41. What is dorsiflexion?
    • Heel up
    • Dug into ground
  42. What is plantar flexion?
    • Ballet pose
    • Toes pointed
  43. Give an example of elevation/depression?
    • Shrug shoulders (elevation)
    • Pull shoulders down (depression)
  44. What are the structural classifications of synovial joints?
    • Plane joints
    • Hinge
    • Pivot
    • Condylar (ellipsoidal)
    • Ball and socket
    • Saddle
  45. Name the plane joints of the structural classification of synovial joints?
    • Clavicle
    • Carpal
    • Tarsal
  46. Name the hinge joint of the structural classification of synovial joints?
    Elbow
  47. Name the pivot joints of the structural classification of synovial joints?
    • Atlas, & axis
    • Radius & radical notch
  48. Name the condylar joints of the structural classification of synovial joints?
    • Fingers & toes
    • Metacarpals & metatarsals
  49. Name the ball & socket joints of the structural classification of synovial joints?
    • Shoulder
    • Hips
  50. Name the saddle joint of the structural classification of synovial joints?
    Base of thumb
  51. Define condyle? Give examples.
    • A rounded process that
    • Usually articulates with another bone
    • Occipital condyle of occipital bone
  52. Define crest? Give example.
    • A narrow, ridgelike projection
    • Iliac crest of ilium
  53. Define Epicondyle? Give examples.
    • A projection situated above a condyle
    • Medial epicondyle of humerus
  54. Define fossa? Give examples.
    • A relatively deep pit
    • Or depression
    • Olecranon fossa of humerus
  55. Define trocanter? Give examples.
    • A relatively large process
    • Greater troncanter of femur
  56. Define tuberosity? Give examples.
    • A knoblike process
    • Usually larger then a tubercle
    • Radial tuberosity of radius

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