holds that the positions of the stars & planets at the time of one's birth determines personality & affects behavior
the school of psychology that empasizes the study of overt, observable behavior.
are interested in how behavior relates to biological processes, especially activities in the nervous system
in depth focus on all aspects of a single person
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological & behavioral disturbances
are primarily intrested in thinking
study & compare the behavior of different species, especially animals
In a controlled experiement, the group of subjectsw exposed to all experimental conditions or variables except the independent variable
The existance of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures or variables
A nonexperiemental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measure or variables
a psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional & behavioral disturbances
A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorders; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors
a tendency to give "polite" or socially desirable answers
these are private, internal activities, such as thinking, dreaming, remembering, and other mental events
study the ways in which culture affects human behavior
the idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs
In an experiement, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by independent variable
The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices & actions if all such causes were known.
the study of progressive changes in behavior & abilities from conception to death
Study of the evolutionary origins of human behavior patterns
A formal trail undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis about cause & effect
in a contolled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental conditions
Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment
Frame of Reference
a mental perspective used to interpret events
The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions
The school of psychology concerned with how behavior & mental abilities help people adapt to their enviroments
study differences between females & males
A school of psychology emphasizing studied thinking, learning & perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts
pseudopsychology claim that personality traits are revealed by handwriting
an approach to psychology that focuses on human expeience, problems, potentials & ideals
in a experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The values that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter.
to look within, to examine one's own thoughts, feelings or sensations
study how & why learning occurs in humans & animals
the tendency of an observer to distort observations or perceptions to match his or her expectations
changes in an organism's behavior brought about by an awarness of being observed
directly observable actions & responses
a false system that calims that lines on the hand reveal personality traits & predict the future
study personality traits, motivation & individual differences
claimed that personality traits are revealed by the shape of the skull
An inacctive substance given in the place of a drug in psychological research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion
Changes in behavior due to a participants expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect
An entire group of animlas, people or objects belonging to a particular category (for example, all college students or all married women)
The study of human strengths, virtues, and effective funtioning
Any false & unscientific system of beliefs & practices that is offered as an explanation of behavior
Psychiatric social worker
A mental health professional trained to apply social science principles to help patients in clinics & hospitals
A medical doctor with additional training in the diagnois & treatment of mental & emotional disorders
A Freudian therepy that emphasizes the use of free association dream interpretation, resistances & transferences to uncover unconscious conflicts
A mental health professional (usually a medical doctor) trained to practice psychoanalysis
Any theory of behavior, that emphasizes internal conflicts, motives & unonscious forces.
A person highly trained in the methods, fcatual knowledge & theories of psychology
the scientific study of behavior & mental processes
The use of chance (for example, flipping a coin) to assign subjects to experimental & control groups
a small, randomly selected part of a larger populations that accurately reflects characteristics of the whole populations
the unconscious process by which memories, thoughts or impulses are held out of awareness
a systematic approach to answering scientific questions
changes in particpants' behavior caused by the uninteded influence of a researcher's actions
Total subjective perception of one's body & personality (another term for self-concept)
the ongoing process of fully developing one's personal potential
to apprasing yourself as good or bad
an expectation that prompts people to act in ways that make the expectation come true
Sensation & perception-psychologist
investigate how we discern the world through our senses
rules that define acceptable & expected behavior for members of a group
any physical energy sensed by an organism
the school of thought concerned with anyalyzing sensations & personal experience into basic elements
the use of public polling techniques to answer psychological questions
contents to the mind that are beyond awarness, especially impulses & desires not directly known to a person
the tendency to beleive generally positive or flattery descriptions of oneself
psychoanalytic approach and the unconscious
structuralism & Introspection
Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
John B. Watson & B. F. Skinner
Father of Psychology
Who wrote the influential textbook on animal behavior titled "The Animal Mind"
First woman to be awarded a Ph.D. in psychology
Wrote the first psychology textbook titled "Principles of Psychology"
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might, select...
John B. Watson
1rst African American Female awarded Ph.D. in Pscyholgy
Inez Beverly Prosser
Bilogical Perspecitve/(1) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
Human & animal behavior is the rsult of internal physical, chemical & biological processes.
seeks to explain behavior through activity of the brian & nervous system, physiology, gentics, the endocrine system, & biochemistry; neutral, reductionistic, mechanistic view of human nature/
Evolutionary View/(2) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
Huaman & animal behavior is the result of the process of evolution.
Seeks to explain behavior through evolutionary principles based on natural selction; neutral, reductionistic, mechanistic view of human nature
Psychological Perspecitve/(3) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
behavior is shaped & controlled by one's enviroment
Emphasizes the study of observable behavior & the effects of learning; stresses the influence of external rewards & punishments; neutral, scientific, somewhat mechanisitc view of human nature
Congnitive View/(4) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
much human behavior can be understood in terms of the mental processing of information
Concerned with thinking, knowing, perception, understanding, memory, decision making, & judgment; explains behavior in termsw of information processing; neutral somewhat computer-like view of human nature.
Psychodynamic View/(5) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
Behavior is directed by forces withing one's personality that are often hidden or unconscious.
Emphasizes internal impulses, desires, & conflicts-especially those that are unconscious; views behavior as the result of clashing forces withing personality; somewhat negative, pessimistic view of human nature.
Humanistic View/(6) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
Behavior is guided by one's self-image, by subjective perceptions of the world, and by needs for personal growth.
Focuses on subjective, conscious experience, human problems, potentials, and ideals; emphasizes self-image & self-actualization to expalin behavior; positive, philosophical view of human nature.
Sociolculture Perspective/(7) major perspecitvie in modern psychology
Behavior is influenced by one's social & cultural context.
Emphasizes that behavior is related to the social & cultural enviroment within which a person is born, grows up, & lives from day to day; neutral, interactionist view of human nature