Card Set Information
Collecting, comparing, discovering, naming, and describing species.
Step 1 to taxonomy
arranging species into hierachical systems by determining relationships through comparing and cladistics.
Step 2 in taxonomy
hypothesizing historical biogeography and ecological evolution from cladistics-based patterns.
: where did something come from, and where did it go
Step 3 in taxonomy
Preparing keys, manuals, and atlases for species and higher groupings.
Taxonomic know how?
environmental inventories at different levels
managing and curating collections and museums
establishing distribution patterns of species
determining rarity and endangerment of species
What is a taxon?
grouping of related organisms recognized at some hierarchical level.
Category or rank?
simply a particular level of hierarchy.
-ini (fairly common)
-ina (convention, not rule...very rarely used)
Determining common ancestry
Step 1 using cladistics
establish characters (like genotype and phenotype).
this will establish what is to be the natural grouping.
Step 2 using cladistics
Describe the variablility found among the characters
also called character states
: present or not present, just one or two
Step 3 using cladistics
determine which of the character states is most likely the ancesteral state vs. the derived state.
this is known as character polarity
found among some portion of the study units in the study group
Step 4 using cladistics
code the characters and states and establish their distribution among already existing groups.
step 5 using cladistics
group any synapomorphies (common derived character states) together
Step 6 using cladistics
construct a family tree (cladogram) that illustrates the branching relationships
based on cladistic derived data
made up of only holophyletic groupings
Contains ALL progeny from an immediate common ancestor
contains SOME, but NOT all progeny of an immediate common ancestor
not allowed in pylogenetic classification
Contains progeny of different immediate anscestors
Not allowed in phylogenetic classification.