Chem 1

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memaryme12
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Chem 1
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2010-10-15 17:42:05
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Chem 1
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  1. Chemistry
    the study of matter & the changes it undergoes
  2. Divisions of Chemistry:
    • Inorganic
    • Organic
    • Biochemistry
    • Embalming Chemistry
    • Thanatochemistry
  3. Inorganic
    • chemistry of all that is not organic.
    • study of the metals & non-metals & their reactions
    • things not derived from living things and things that do not contain carbon
  4. Organic
    • chemistry of carbon & carbon containing compounds
    • chemistry of those things derived from once-living things
  5. Biochemistry(biological chemistry, physiological chemistry)
    • chemistry of life
    • involves all the living processes in health & disease, organice and inorganice are "applied" here
  6. Embalming chemistry
    chemistry of the chemical processes involving dead organic substances in terms of decomposition & preservation
  7. Thanatochemsitry
    the study of those physical & chemical changes in the human body that are caused by the process of death
  8. Chemical measurements=The Metric System
    based on the decimal system, multiples of 10
  9. giga
    1,000,000,000= billion
  10. mega
    1,000,000=million
  11. kilo
    1,000=thousand
  12. hecto
    100=hundred
  13. deka
    10=ten
  14. deci
    0.1=tenth
  15. centi
    0.01=hundreth
  16. mili
    0.001=thousandth
  17. micro
    0.000001=millionth
  18. nano
    0.000000001=billonth
  19. billionth
    0.000000001=nano
  20. millionth
    0.000001=micro
  21. thousandth
    mili=0.001
  22. hundreth
    centi=0.01
  23. tenth
    deci=0.1
  24. ten
    deka=10
  25. hundred
    hecto=100
  26. thousand
    kilo=1,000
  27. million
    mega=1,000,000
  28. billion
    giga=1,000,000,000
  29. length=meter
    • 1 m.=39.37 in.
    • 1 in. = 2.54 cm.
  30. volume=liter
    • 1 liter= 1.06 quarts
    • 1 fluid oz.=29.57 ml~30 ml
    • 1 cc.=1cm3~ 1 ml.
  31. mass & weight=kilograms=grams
    • 1 Kg.=2.2 lbs.
    • 1 oz.= 28.53 g.
    • 1 lb.= 454 g.
  32. mass
    a measure of quanity of matter a body contains
  33. weight
    a measure of the gravitational attraction of the earth for the body
  34. heat
    • the energy that causes there to be changes in matter
    • measured in calories
    • amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one grams of water one degree C
    • calories= # of grams of water X # degrees change in temperature
  35. temperature
    • measure the intensity of heat
    • the hotness of coldness
  36. Degree Celsuis or Degree Centrigrade
    used in most scientifice study
  37. Kelvin
    • is used in many mathematical formulas of chemistry
    • 0 K. is absolute zero
    • an abstract number
    • when all things in the universe come to a halt
  38. Coversion from Celsius to Kelvin (Absolute)
    -K=`C + 273
  39. Boiling Point of Water
    C/ 100 = K/373
  40. Normal Body Temp.
    C/37 = K/310
  41. Freezing Point of Water
    C/0 = K/273
  42. Energy
    • the ability or capacity to do work.
    • there are "2" basic types: potential energy and kinetic energy
  43. Potential Energy
    • stored energy
    • has the potential to do work
  44. Examples of Potential Energy
    • food
    • gasoline
    • coiled spring
    • battery
  45. Kinetic Energy
    the energy of motion
  46. Examples of Kinetic Energy
    • current of a river
    • wood burning
    • motor running
  47. Chemical Energy
    • energy associated with chemical reactions
    • 2 types of chemical reactions from a chemical energy point of view
    • Endothermic
    • Exothermic
  48. Endothermic Reaction
    Absorbs heat (feels cool)
  49. Exothermic Reaction
    Releases heat (feels hot)
  50. Other types of energy
    • heat
    • light
    • sound
    • electrical
  51. The Law of Conservation of Energy
    Energy is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, only changed in form
  52. The Law of Conservation of Matter (Mass)
    Matter (Mass) is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction
  53. The Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy
    • In any type of reaction, mass or energy can be neither created or destroyed; they can only be interconverted (change one to the other).
    • interconverted (change to the other)
    • nothing is lost in the reaction
  54. Matter
    anything occupies space
  55. Properties of Matter
    the signs/characteristics that serve to identify substances
  56. Physical Properties
    • those characteristics of a substance as it exist in nature
    • properties that can change without involving a charge in a chemical composition
  57. Physical properties
    • 1. See, touch, feel or descriptions- color, ordor, taste, boiling point, freezing point
    • 2. State of matter-solid, liquid, or gas
    • 3. Solubility-how well a substiance will dissolve in another
    • 4. Density-the mass per unit volume or the mass of an object divided by it's volume
    • 5. Specific Gravity- a ration of denisities
    • 6. Viscosity- resistance to flow
  58. Density
    • the mass per unit volume or the mass of an object divided by its volume
    • mass/volume=Denisty
    • things that are heavy tend to be more dense
  59. Specific Gravity
    • a ratio of densities
    • the density of an object divided by the denisty of water
    • the Specific Gravity of water=1
    • if Specific Gravity of a substances is less 1 substance will float in H2O
    • if Specific Gravity of a substance is greater 1 substance will sink in H2O
  60. Viscosity
    • resistance to flow
    • blood is more viscous than water
    • affects the boiling and freezing points
  61. Chemical Properties
    • the characterisitcs that are observed only when the substance undergoes a chemical change
    • thereby changing the composition of the substances
    • how it reactis with oxygen, water, acids, bases it's "reactivity"
  62. States of Matter
    • Solids
    • Liquids
    • Gases
  63. Solids
    • have a definte shape & volume, they do not flow
    • particles are packed tightly together in an organized fashion
  64. properties of solids
    • melting
    • Sublimation
  65. melting
    changing states from solid to liquid, melting pt= freezing pt
  66. sublimation
    changing states from solid to gas, skips the liquid state
  67. Liquids
    have no definte shape but do have a definte volume, particles are farther apart than in solids
  68. Liquid properties
    • Viscosity
    • Surface Tension
    • Diffusion
    • Freezing
    • Solidification
    • Boiling
    • Vaporization
    • Crystallization
    • Volatillity
  69. Viscosity
    • (physical & chemical)
    • resistance to flow
  70. Surface Tension
    the attraction of the molecules for each other at the surface of a liquid
  71. Diffusion
    the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
  72. Freezing
    a change of state of matter from a liquid to a solid by the loss of heat
  73. Solidification
    the ability of a liquid particles to the vapor state of forming bubbles through the action of heat
  74. Boiling
    the rapid passage of liquid pacticles to the vapor state by forming bubbles through the action of heat
  75. Vaporiztion
    the physical change from a liquid to gas
  76. Crystalization
    the process by which a substance is given definite form
  77. Volatillity
    having the quality of being easily converted at a relatively low temperature from the liquid to the gaseous state
  78. Gases
    have no definte shape or volume and will always fill their container
  79. Gases properties
    • condensation
    • vaporization
    • diffusion
    • liquefaction
  80. Condensation
    a change in a state of matter from a gas to a liquid
  81. Vaporization
    gas particles spreading further out
  82. Diffusion
    liquid particles spreading further out
  83. Liquefaction
    conversion of a solid or gas into a liquid
  84. the state of matter is dependent upon
    temperature and pressure
  85. changes in matter
    physical and chemical change
  86. physical change
    changes in the condition or state of a substances, only changing the physical characterisics, do not form new substances or change the composition
  87. chemical change
    • changes that result in the formation of new substances
    • occures only when a chemcial reaction takes places
    • change the composition of the original substance
    • lead to new chemical and physical properties
  88. physical and chemical change
    • p= boiling water, freezin water, breaking glass, sublimating dry ice
    • c= decomposition, digestion of food, burning wood, rusting of a nail, cremation, embalming a body
  89. Compositional forms of matter
    • all matter can be divided into three compositional classes
    • Elements-Compounds-Mixtures
  90. Elements
    the basic units of all matter, the building blocks
  91. Element facts
    • there are now 118 known elements
    • 90 of these are naturally occuring (can be found in the enviroment)
    • the rest are man-made
    • elements cannot be broken down (or decomposed chemically)
    • you would no longer have an element
    • a "chemical shorthand" gave ea. element a symbol known as "Atomic Symbol"
    • usually an abbreviation of their names
    • symbols are taken from the first letter of the name
    • others must have two letter to distinguish them
    • 1st letter always capitalized
    • 2nd letter always in lower case
    • some are from their latin names: Fe for Iron, K for Potassium
  92. Functions of the Atomic Symbol
    • identifies the element
    • represents one atom of the element
  93. Aluminum
    Al
  94. Bromine
    Br
  95. Calcium
    Ca
  96. Carbon
    C
  97. Chlorine
    Cl
  98. Copper
    Cu
  99. Fluorine
    F
  100. helium
    He
  101. Hydrogen
    H
  102. Iodine
    I
  103. Iron
    Fe
  104. Magnesium
    Mg
  105. Manganese
    Mn
  106. Mercury
    Hg
  107. Nitrogen
    N
  108. Oxygen
    O
  109. Phosphorus
    P
  110. Platinum
    Pt
  111. Potassium
    K
  112. Sodium
    Na
  113. Sulfur
    S

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