lecture test #1

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lecture test #1
2010-09-16 01:19:09


lecture test #1
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  1. What are the 5 functions of bone?
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Manufacture of blood cells
    • Mineral reservoir
    • muscle attachment
  2. Name the term for a bone cell.
  3. What is the root word for bone(s)?
  4. What is the name for the membrane surrounding bone, to which muscles attach?
  5. The end of long bones is called the _____________
  6. Name the term for the diameter of long bones
  7. The axial skeleton makes up the __________ ______
    center axis
  8. The axial skeleton includes:
    • the skull
    • vertebral column
    • & rib cage
  9. The skull is comprised of how many bones, sutures, & fontanels?
  10. Proximal is
    nearest to the point of origin
  11. Distal is
    farthest to the point of origin
  12. Origin is
    where a muscle attaches to a bone where NO movement occurs
  13. Insertion is
    where muscle attaches to bone, where movement occurs
  14. Name the term for the soft spots of the skull, where two bones intersect
  15. Name the fontanel located at the coronal & sagittal suture
    the frontal fontanel
  16. What fontanel is located at the sagittal & lambdoidal suture?
    the occipital fontanel
  17. The sphenoidal fontanel is located at he intersection of what two sutures?
    the coronal and squamosal
  18. Which fontanel is located at the intersection of the squamosal and lambdoidal sutures?
    the mastoidal fontanel
  19. The first set of vertebrae, which make up the neck are
    the cervical vertebrae
  20. How many cervical vertebrae are there?
    • 7
    • named C1 through C7
  21. The C1 vertebra, which supports the skull is called the __________
  22. The C2 vertebra, which rotates the skull is called the _______
  23. The 2nd set of vertebrae, which make up the the greater curvature of the vertebral column are the
    thoracic vertebrae
  24. How many thoracic vertebrae are there?
    • 12
    • 1 per pair of ribs
    • named T1 through T12
  25. The set of vertebrae that make up the small curvature of the back are
    the lumbar vertebrae
  26. There are how many lumbar vertebrae?
    • 5
    • named L1 through L5
  27. The 5 vertebrae, which are fused together to form the sacrum are the
    sacral vertebrae
  28. The coccygeal vertebrae are
    4 fused vertebrae, which make up the coccyx (tail bone)
  29. The rib cage is made up of
    12 pairs of ribs & the sternum (breast bone)
  30. The "true ribs" are
    • the first seven pair of ribs
    • they have direct sternal attachment
  31. False ribs are
    • the 2nd set of ribs
    • there are 3 pair
    • they have indirect sternal attachment
  32. The indirect sternal attachment of the false ribs is provided via
    costal cartilage
  33. The lowest two pair of ribs are:
    • called the floating ribs
    • they have no sternal attachment
  34. The muscle between the ribs is called the
    intercostal muscle
  35. The body of the sternum is called
    the gladiolus
  36. The head of the sternum is called the
  37. The bottom point of the sternum is called the
    xiphoid process
  38. The pelvic girdle and the pectoral girdle collectively make up the __________ ____________
    apendicular skeleton
  39. Name the 3 types of joints
    • cartilaginous joints
    • fibrous joints
    • synovial joints
  40. What type of joints have a layer of cartilage that covers the articulative surfaces of two bones (ie. intervertebral disks & pubic symphosis)?
    cartilaginous joints
  41. _____________ joints are highly immovable joints, covered by dense fibrous connective tissue. (ie. sutures)
  42. Describe characteristics of synovial joints.
    • contain bursi or bursa
    • filled with synovial fluid
  43. Name the 3 types of synovial joints
    • hinge joints
    • pivot joints
    • ball & socket joints
  44. Hinge joints are capable of
    flexion & extension
  45. Pivot joints are capable of
    supination & pronation
  46. Ball & socket joints are capable of
    • flexion
    • extension
    • medial rotation
    • lateral rotation
    • adduction
    • & abduction
  47. List 3 types of joint disorders
    • dislocation
    • sprain
    • arthritis
  48. A dislocation is
    a displacement of the articular surfaces of two bones
  49. A sprain is
    a twisting of a joint, stretching out the ligaments
  50. Arthritis is
    inflammation of the joints
  51. Arthritis is what type of disease?
  52. An autoimmune disease is
    the development of antibodies against your own tissue
  53. An autoimmune disease is caused by
    • an altered antigen or
    • cross reactive antigens
  54. Cross reactive antigens are
    2 antigens similar in their chemical make-up
  55. Characteristics of skeletal muscle:
    • voluntary
    • striated
    • on average make up 40% of body weight
  56. Antagonists:
    • work against each other to preform tasks
    • (ie. biceps brachii & triceps brachii)
  57. Synergist:
    • work together to preform a task
    • (ie. quadriceps)
  58. List the order of a muscle contraction
    • 1. the latent period
    • 2. contraction
    • 3. stationary phase
    • 4. relaxation
  59. The latent period is
    the short period of time between stimulation and contraction
  60. Types of single stimulus are
    • subthreshold
    • threshold
    • & maximal
  61. A subthreshold stimulus is:
    • not capable of producing a response
    • subliminal
  62. A threshold (liminal) stimulus
    produces the weakest contraction possible (threshold or liminal contraction)
  63. A maximal stimulus
    • produces a maximal contraction (maximal response)
    • a single muscle cell responds in this way to any stimulus (the all-or-none law)
  64. List the 3 different types of repetitive stimuli
    • subthreshold (subliminal) stimuli
    • threshold (liminal) stimuli
    • maximal stimuli
  65. Repetitive subthreshold stimuli causes
    • an adding (summation) of the separate stimuli
    • thereby producing a threshold response
  66. The result of repetitive threshold stimuli is
    two threshold responses
  67. Repetitive maximal stimuli may result in
    • incomplete tetanus (interrupted stimulus)
    • or
    • complete tetanus
  68. Which suture separates the parietal bones from the temporal bones?
    the squamosal
  69. The sagittal suture separates
    the 2 parietal bones
  70. Which suture separates the frontal bone from the 2 parietal bones
    the coronal suture
  71. Which suture separates the occipital bone from the 2 parietal bones
    the lambdoidal suture