what is a disease pathogen? Where are they located?
microorganism that is capable of causing disease
present in oral or respiratory secretions
what are some disease pathogens?
cold and flu
human immunodeficiency virus
what are the basic routes of disease transmission?
direct contact-blood, saliva, respirator secretion or lesions
spatter or aerosols
what three things must be present for infection to occur?
pathogen with00 sufficient infectivity and numbers
portal of entry
what is the use of physical or chemical procedure to destroy all pathogens, including the highly resistant bacterial and mycotic spores?
what are the measures which integrate and expand the elements of universal precautions into a stanard of care disgned to protect health care personnel and patients from pathogens that can be spread by blood or any other body fluid, excreation or secretion
what is a specific incident that involves contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials and that can result from procedures preformed by the dental professional?
what is it called when one comes in contact with blood or other infectious material that involves the skin, eye or mucous membranes and that result from procedures performed by the dental professional
what is a method of infection control in which all human blood and certain body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV and other bloodborne pathogens
what is the waste that consists of blood, blood products, contaminated sharps or other microbiologic products
what is a bloodborne pathogen?
pathogens present in blood that cause disease in humans
what is disinfection
the act of disinfecting
whats is disinfect? and what is not killed?
the use of chemical or physical procedure to inhibit or destroy pathogens. Highly resistant bacterial and mycotic (fungal) spores are not killed during disinfection procedures
what is sterilization
the act of sterilizing
what is asepsis? when is this term often used?
the absence of pathogens, or disease-causing microorganisms. often used to describe the procedures that prevent infection
what is antiseptic? when is this term often used?
substance that inhibits the growth of bacteria. often used to describe handwashing or wound cleansing procedures
what is parenteral exposure?
exposure to blood or other infectious materials that result from piercing or puncturing the skin barrier (needle stick)
what is a sharp?
any object that can penetrate skin, including but not limited to needles and scalpels.
what is the protective attire and barrier techniques for infection control? (PPE)
clothing-coat and uniform
what are the classifications for instruments?
what is a critical instrument and how must it be cleaned?
penetrates soft tissue or bone
what is a semicritical instrument and how must it be cleaned?
cantact with soft tissue or bone but does not penetrate
high level disinfection
what is a noncritical instrument and how must it be cleaned?
do not come in contact with mucous membrane
what do you do (prepare) before exposure?
prepare treatment room
prepare supplies and equipment
during exposure how do you use infection control?
film handling-dry place in container
film holding device-once used put on patient covered counter
after exposure and before removal of glove what must you do? after removal?
before-dispose of waste, put film holder in designated place for contaminated instruments
after-wash hands and remove lead apron
how do you use infection control for processing?
film handling w/o barrier do not touch xray with barrier unwrap then unglove and load
disinfect dark room
how do you use the day light loader?
place film cup, clean cup and gloves in container
close daylight loader and push clean hands through openings
put on gloves
unwrap films and drop in slot area
dispose of packet in other cup
remove gloves place in cup
feed films in processor
remove wash and wash hands
discard all wrappings, cup and gloves
label and mount
what is an angle?
a figure formed by two lines diverging from common point
to divide into two equal parts
figure formed by connecting three points not in a straight line by three straight line segments
how many angles does a triangle have?
define triangle, equilateral
a triangle with three equal sides
define right triangle
triangle with one 90 degree angle
define congruent triangle
triangles that are identical and correspond exactly when superimposed
side of right triangle opposite the right angle
equality of measurement
define long axis
an imaginary line that divides the tooth longitudinally into two equal halves
define central ray
central portion of the primary beam of xradiation
what are the 4 principles of bisecting technique
film must be placed along lingual surface
film and tooth form an angle
radiographer visualizes a plane that divides the film and long axis of the tooth
central ray must be directed at the visualized plane at a 90 degree angle
how do you stabilize the film in the bisecting technique?
what is the horizontal angulation of the PID in the bisecting technique?
perpendicular to curvature of the arch and through contact areas
what are the five rules for the bisecting technique?
film position-against lingual surface of teeth, dot in slot, 1/8" beyond edge of teeth
vertical angulation-perpendicular to imaginary bisector
horizontal angulation-through contact
film exposure-center on film to expose all areas
what are the patient perparations for the bisecting technique?
explain procedure to patient
place lead apron and thyroid collar
remove all objects
what is the anterior exposure sequence for bisecting technique?
same as parallel
what is exposure sequence for bisecting technique?
begin max right quad-premolars then molars
next mandibular right quad-premolars then molars
next max left quad-premolars then molars
finish mandibular left quad-premolars then molars
what are the advantages and disadvantages to the bisecting technique?
advantages-can be used without film holder because of anatomy and can use short PID
disadvantages-image distortion, angulation problems, unnecessary exposure to patients hand
what is crestal bone?
coronal portion of alveolar bone found between the teeth, aka alveolar crest
what are the three principles of bitewing technique
film is placed in mouth parallel to crowns of both upper and lower jaws
film is stabilized when patient bites on bitewing tab
central ray directed through contact and vertical angulation is +10 degrees
what are the sizes of film and when are they used?
0=children with primary dentition
1=children with mixed dentition
2=teens and adults (horizontal or vertical)
3=one film taken on each side of adults
what are the 5 rules for bitewing technique
film postition-must be parallel to crowns
vertical angulation-central ray must be directed at +10 degrees
horizontal angulation-through contacts
film exposure-centered on film to avoid cone cut
what is the patient preparation for bitewing technique
explain procedure to patient
place lead apron and thyroid collar
what is the exposure sequence for bitewing technique
only in areas of interproximal contact
premolars then molars
in fmx all pa's first and finish with bwx
what is a vertical bitewing used for?
used to examine level of alveolar bone
what are two types of modifications of the bitewing technique
edentulous spaces-use cotton roll
bony growths-between tongue and tori
what are 4 technique errors for bitewings?
what is the vertical angulation for the bisecting technique for maxillary anteriors, premolars and molars?
what is the vertical angulation for the bisecting technique for mandibular anteriors, premolars and molars?