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2010-09-16 02:06:29

infection control, bisecting and bitewings
Show Answers:

  1. how may infectious diseases be transmitted?
    • patient to dental professional
    • dental professional to patient
    • one patient to another patient
  2. what is a disease pathogen? Where are they located?
    • microorganism that is capable of causing disease
    • present in oral or respiratory secretions
  3. what are some disease pathogens?
    • cold and flu
    • cytomegalovirus
    • hepatitis B
    • hepatitis C
    • human immunodeficiency virus
    • mycobacterium tuberculosis
  4. what are the basic routes of disease transmission?
    • direct contact-blood, saliva, respirator secretion or lesions
    • indirect contact-instruments
    • spatter or aerosols
  5. what three things must be present for infection to occur?
    • susceptible host
    • pathogen with00 sufficient infectivity and numbers
    • portal of entry
  6. what is the use of physical or chemical procedure to destroy all pathogens, including the highly resistant bacterial and mycotic spores?
  7. what are the measures which integrate and expand the elements of universal precautions into a stanard of care disgned to protect health care personnel and patients from pathogens that can be spread by blood or any other body fluid, excreation or secretion
    standard precautions
  8. what is a specific incident that involves contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials and that can result from procedures preformed by the dental professional?
    exposure incident
  9. what is it called when one comes in contact with blood or other infectious material that involves the skin, eye or mucous membranes and that result from procedures performed by the dental professional
    occupational exposure
  10. what is a method of infection control in which all human blood and certain body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV and other bloodborne pathogens
    universal precautions
  11. what is the waste that consists of blood, blood products, contaminated sharps or other microbiologic products
    infectious waste
  12. what is a bloodborne pathogen?
    pathogens present in blood that cause disease in humans
  13. what is disinfection
    the act of disinfecting
  14. whats is disinfect? and what is not killed?
    the use of chemical or physical procedure to inhibit or destroy pathogens. Highly resistant bacterial and mycotic (fungal) spores are not killed during disinfection procedures
  15. what is sterilization
    the act of sterilizing
  16. what is asepsis? when is this term often used?
    the absence of pathogens, or disease-causing microorganisms. often used to describe the procedures that prevent infection
  17. what is antiseptic? when is this term often used?
    substance that inhibits the growth of bacteria. often used to describe handwashing or wound cleansing procedures
  18. what is parenteral exposure?
    exposure to blood or other infectious materials that result from piercing or puncturing the skin barrier (needle stick)
  19. what is a sharp?
    any object that can penetrate skin, including but not limited to needles and scalpels.
  20. what is the protective attire and barrier techniques for infection control? (PPE)
    • clothing-coat and uniform
    • gloves
    • masks
    • eyewear
  21. what are the classifications for instruments?
    • critical
    • semicritical
    • noncritical
  22. what is a critical instrument and how must it be cleaned?
    • penetrates soft tissue or bone
    • sterilized
  23. what is a semicritical instrument and how must it be cleaned?
    • cantact with soft tissue or bone but does not penetrate
    • sterilized
    • high level disinfection
  24. what is a noncritical instrument and how must it be cleaned?
    • do not come in contact with mucous membrane
    • disninfected
  25. what do you do (prepare) before exposure?
    • prepare treatment room
    • prepare supplies and equipment
    • prepare patient
    • prepare self
  26. during exposure how do you use infection control?
    • film handling-dry place in container
    • film holding device-once used put on patient covered counter
  27. after exposure and before removal of glove what must you do? after removal?
    • before-dispose of waste, put film holder in designated place for contaminated instruments
    • after-wash hands and remove lead apron
  28. how do you use infection control for processing?
    • film transport-cup
    • darkroom-gloves
    • film handling w/o barrier do not touch xray with barrier unwrap then unglove and load
    • disinfect dark room
  29. how do you use the day light loader?
    • place film cup, clean cup and gloves in container
    • close daylight loader and push clean hands through openings
    • put on gloves
    • unwrap films and drop in slot area
    • dispose of packet in other cup
    • remove gloves place in cup
    • feed films in processor
    • remove wash and wash hands
    • discard all wrappings, cup and gloves
    • label and mount
  30. what is an angle?
    a figure formed by two lines diverging from common point
  31. define bisect
    to divide into two equal parts
  32. define triangle
    figure formed by connecting three points not in a straight line by three straight line segments
  33. how many angles does a triangle have?
  34. define triangle, equilateral
    a triangle with three equal sides
  35. define right triangle
    triangle with one 90 degree angle
  36. define congruent triangle
    triangles that are identical and correspond exactly when superimposed
  37. define hypotenuse
    side of right triangle opposite the right angle
  38. define isometry
    equality of measurement
  39. define long axis
    an imaginary line that divides the tooth longitudinally into two equal halves
  40. define central ray
    central portion of the primary beam of xradiation
  41. what are the 4 principles of bisecting technique
    • film must be placed along lingual surface
    • film and tooth form an angle
    • radiographer visualizes a plane that divides the film and long axis of the tooth
    • central ray must be directed at the visualized plane at a 90 degree angle
  42. how do you stabilize the film in the bisecting technique?
    • film holder
    • pt finger
  43. what is the horizontal angulation of the PID in the bisecting technique?
    perpendicular to curvature of the arch and through contact areas
  44. what are the five rules for the bisecting technique?
    • film placement
    • film position-against lingual surface of teeth, dot in slot, 1/8" beyond edge of teeth
    • vertical angulation-perpendicular to imaginary bisector
    • horizontal angulation-through contact
    • film exposure-center on film to expose all areas
  45. what are the patient perparations for the bisecting technique?
    • explain procedure to patient
    • postition chair
    • adjust headrest
    • place lead apron and thyroid collar
    • remove all objects
  46. what is the anterior exposure sequence for bisecting technique?
    same as parallel
  47. what is exposure sequence for bisecting technique?
    • begin max right quad-premolars then molars
    • next mandibular right quad-premolars then molars
    • next max left quad-premolars then molars
    • finish mandibular left quad-premolars then molars
  48. what are the advantages and disadvantages to the bisecting technique?
    • advantages-can be used without film holder because of anatomy and can use short PID
    • disadvantages-image distortion, angulation problems, unnecessary exposure to patients hand
  49. what is crestal bone?
    coronal portion of alveolar bone found between the teeth, aka alveolar crest
  50. what are the three principles of bitewing technique
    • film is placed in mouth parallel to crowns of both upper and lower jaws
    • film is stabilized when patient bites on bitewing tab
    • central ray directed through contact and vertical angulation is +10 degrees
  51. what are the sizes of film and when are they used?
    • 0=children with primary dentition
    • 1=children with mixed dentition
    • 2=teens and adults (horizontal or vertical)
    • 3=one film taken on each side of adults
    • 4=occlusal
  52. what are the 5 rules for bitewing technique
    • film placement
    • film postition-must be parallel to crowns
    • vertical angulation-central ray must be directed at +10 degrees
    • horizontal angulation-through contacts
    • film exposure-centered on film to avoid cone cut
  53. what is the patient preparation for bitewing technique
    • explain procedure to patient
    • adjust chair
    • adjust headrest
    • place lead apron and thyroid collar
    • remove objects
  54. what is the exposure sequence for bitewing technique
    • only in areas of interproximal contact
    • premolars then molars
    • in fmx all pa's first and finish with bwx
  55. what is a vertical bitewing used for?
    • used to examine level of alveolar bone
    • periodontal patients
  56. what are two types of modifications of the bitewing technique
    • edentulous spaces-use cotton roll
    • bony growths-between tongue and tori
  57. what are 4 technique errors for bitewings?
    • film placement
    • horizontal angulation
    • vertical angulation
    • PID alignment
  58. what is the vertical angulation for the bisecting technique for maxillary anteriors, premolars and molars?
    • canines- +45-55
    • incisors- +40-50
    • premolars- +30-40
    • molars +20-30
  59. what is the vertical angulation for the bisecting technique for mandibular anteriors, premolars and molars?
    • canines- -20-30
    • incisors- -15-25
    • premolars- -10-15
    • molars- -10-15