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Division of Labor (Job Specialization)
The breakdown of jobs into narrow and repetitive tasks which increased productivity by increasing each worker's skill and dexterity, while saving time in changing tasks, and creating labor-saving inventions and machinery.
- -Adam Smith
- -The Wealth of Nations
- -Late 18th Century
- -Machine power substituted for human power
- -Made it more economical to manufacture goods in factories instead of homes
Needed managers to forecast demand, stock material, and assign tasks, etc.
Did not come up with managerial theories until early 1900's.
- 1911, Frederic Winslow Taylor
- Principles of Scientific ManagementAlso, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth (Therblings)
- The use of scientific methods to define the "one best way" of completing a task.
- Four Principles of Management:
- 1. Develop a science for each element of an individual's work to replace the old rule of thumb method
- 2. Scientifically select and train, teach, and develop worker
- 3. Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed.
- 4. Divide work and responsibility almost eaqually between management and workers. Management does all work for which it is better suited that the workers.
The classification scheme used to identify and label the 17 basic hand movements which the Gilbreths used as a precise way of analyzing a worker's exact hand movements.
Used in scientific management.
General Administrative Theory
- Henri Fayol and Max Weber
- Management from the perspective of the entire organization.
Focused on what managers do and what constituted good management practice.
Principles of Management
- Fundamental rules of management that could be applied to all organizational situations and taught in schools.
- Henri Fayol
- 1. Division of Work
- 2. Authority
- 3. Discipline
- 4. Unity of command
- 5. Unity of direction
- 6. Subordination of individual interests
- 7. Remuneration
- 8. Centralization
- 9. Scalar chain
- 10. Order
- 11. Equity
- 12. Stability of tenure of personnel
- 13. Initiative
- 14. Esprit de corps
- Max Weber, early 1900's- General Administrative Theory.
- Developed a theory of authority structures and relations based on an ideal type of organization
A form of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships.
Quantitative Approach (Management Science)
- The use of quantitative techniques to improve decision making.
- -America West Airlines ( reverse boarding)
Total Quality Management
A philosophy of management that is driven by continuous improvement and responsiveness to customer needs and expectations
W. Edwards Deming and Joseph M. Juran 1980's, 1990
- 1. Intense focus on the customer
- 2. Concern for continual improvement
- 3. Process Focused
- 4. Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does
- 5. Accurate measurement
- 6. Empowerment of Employees.
A field of study that researches the actions of people at work.
Early advocates: Robert owen, Hugo Munsterberg, Mary Parker Elliot, and Chester Bernard
A series of studies during the 1920's and 30's that provided new insights to individual and group behavior
A Set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.
Systems that are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment.
Systems that interact with their environment.
A management approach which says that organizations are different, face different situations (contingencies) and require different ways of managing.
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