compounds composed of molecules that contain carbon.
compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen.
all living organisms require water to live
More than 50% of an adults weight is water
Oxygen and carbon dioxide -
related to cellular respiration
Electrolytes -(Acids, Bases, and Salts)
Substances that break up in solution to form charged particles called ions.
Four of the Most Important Groups
Carbohydrates – (sugars and starches)
contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
primary source of chemical energy for every cell
serve a structure role in DNA and RNA
(cell reproduction and protein synthesis)
Divided into 3 classes by the length of their carbon chains
Short carbon chain
3 carbon sugar
4 carbon sugars
5 carbon sugars
6 carbon sugars
example – glucose (blood sugar)
Low blood sugar, not enough glucose
Sugar water in IV – D5W (Dextrose) is glucose
Double sugars (carbohydrates composed of 2 simple sugars that bond together through a reaction that involves the removal of water)
Examples: sucrose (table sugar) maltose, and lactose
Each consists of two monosaccharides linked together.
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H24O12
C12 H22 O11
Lose water – H2O
2 smaller molecules to make a bigger one and H2O molecule taken out to form the bond
Consist of many monosaccharides, chemically joined to form chains.
Again, water is removed as the subunits are joined.
Larger molecules made up of identical smaller molecules .
Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides.
Main polysaccharide in the body – glycogen..made in liver.
Sometimes too big to absorb….need to break bond…..put water back in…..called hydrolysis.
building blocks 10,000 different proteins in the body
All proteins have 4 elements
carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
Are the most abundant of the carbon containing (organic) compounds in the body
Pro – 1st ranked – very important to the body
They are giant – therefore, called macromolecules.
Functions of Proteins
►form the structure of cells, tissues,
►unique shapes and compositions
This allows proteins to form the many different building blocks of the body.
Unique shape allows it to fit with chemicals and cause changes in the molecules. (chemical reactions)
Transports substances in blood
Communicate information to cells
Act as receptors
Defend body against harmful agents
Building Blocks of Proteins
Elements that make up a protein molecule are bonded together to form chemical units called amino acids.
Each protein has 20 amino acids. 8 of the 20 are essential amino acids….cannot be produced by the body; need to be included in your diet. The other 12 are produced by the body – nonessential amino acids.
water insoluble organic biomolecules
They do not dissolve in water because they are non-polar (no charged region).
Composed of these element
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Used for energy and protection of vital organs (used as “fat pads”).
Can also insulate nerves, thus preventing “short circuits.”
Examples of Lipids
the body’s most concentrated source of energy
similar to triglycerides except they are water soluble…important to the cell membrane
ex. cholesterol, which is found in the plasma membrane surrounding a cell. Helps to stabilize cellular structure.
called tissue hormones…..associated with prostate tissue…..also can influence blood pressure, enhances the body’s immune system, role in blood clotting and respiration.
4. Nucleic Acids, nucleotides, and Related Molecules
Thousands and thousands of nucleotides make up a nucleic acid.