chapter 2 pt2

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chapter 2 pt2
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2010-09-16 06:34:33
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chapter 2 pt2
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  1. Organic and Inorganic Compounds
  2. Organic
    compounds composed of molecules that contain carbon.
  3. Inorganic
    compounds that do not contain carbon and hydrogen.
  4. Inorganic Molecules
  5. Water
    • all living organisms require water to live
    • More than 50% of an adults weight is water
  6. Oxygen and carbon dioxide -
    related to cellular respiration
  7. Electrolytes - (Acids, Bases, and Salts)
    Substances that break up in solution to form charged particles called ions.
  8. Organic Molecules
  9. Four of the Most Important Groups
    • Carbohydrates – (sugars and starches)
    • contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
    • primary source of chemical energy for every cell
    • serve a structure role in DNA and RNA
    • (cell reproduction and protein synthesis)
  10. Divided into 3 classes by the length of their carbon chains
  11. Monosaccharides
    simple sugars
  12. Disaccharides
    double sugars
  13. Polysaccharides
    complex sugars
  14. Monosaccharides
  15. Simple sugars
    Short carbon chain
  16. 3 carbon sugar
    trioses
  17. 4 carbon sugars
    Tetroses
  18. 5 carbon sugars
    Pentose
  19. 6 carbon sugars
    Hexose
  20. example – glucose (blood sugar)
    • Low blood sugar, not enough glucose
    • Sugar water in IV – D5W (Dextrose) is glucose
  21. Disaccharides
  22. Double sugars (carbohydrates composed of 2 simple sugars that bond together through a reaction that involves the removal of water)
  23. Examples: sucrose (table sugar) maltose, and lactose
    Each consists of two monosaccharides linked together.
  24. C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 = C12H24O12
    glucose glucose
  25. C12 H22 O11
    Lose water – H2O
  26. Dehydration Synthesis
    2 smaller molecules to make a bigger one and H2O molecule taken out to form the bond
  27. Polysaccharides
    • Complex sugars
    • Consist of many monosaccharides, chemically joined to form chains.
    • Again, water is removed as the subunits are joined.
  28. polymer
    Larger molecules made up of identical smaller molecules .
  29. Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides.
    • Main polysaccharide in the body – glycogen..made in liver.
    • Sometimes too big to absorb….need to break bond…..put water back in…..called hydrolysis.
  30. 2. Proteins
    building blocks 10,000 different proteins in the body
  31. All proteins have 4 elements
    carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
  32. Are the most abundant of the carbon containing (organic) compounds in the body
    • Pro – 1st ranked – very important to the body
    • They are giant – therefore, called macromolecules.
  33. Functions of Proteins
    • Structural
    • ►form the structure of cells, tissues,
    • and organs.
    • ►unique shapes and compositions
    • flexible strands
    • elastic strands
    • waterproof layers
  34. This allows proteins to form the many different building blocks of the body.
  35. Functional
    • chemists
    • Unique shape allows it to fit with chemicals and cause changes in the molecules. (chemical reactions)
    • Transports substances in blood
    • Communicate information to cells
    • Act as receptors
    • Defend body against harmful agents
    • Provide energy
  36. Building Blocks of Proteins
    AMINO ACIDS
  37. Elements that make up a protein molecule are bonded together to form chemical units called amino acids.
  38. Each protein has 20 amino acids. 8 of the 20 are essential amino acids….cannot be produced by the body; need to be included in your diet. The other 12 are produced by the body – nonessential amino acids.
  39. 3. LIPIDS
    • water insoluble organic biomolecules
    • They do not dissolve in water because they are non-polar (no charged region).
  40. Composed of these element
    carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  41. Used for energy and protection of vital organs (used as “fat pads”).
    Can also insulate nerves, thus preventing “short circuits.”
  42. Examples of Lipids
  43. Triglycerides (fats)
    the body’s most concentrated source of energy
  44. Phospholipids
    similar to triglycerides except they are water soluble…important to the cell membrane
  45. Steroids
    ex. cholesterol, which is found in the plasma membrane surrounding a cell. Helps to stabilize cellular structure.
  46. Prostaglandins
    called tissue hormones…..associated with prostate tissue…..also can influence blood pressure, enhances the body’s immune system, role in blood clotting and respiration.
  47. 4. Nucleic Acids, nucleotides, and Related Molecules
    Thousands and thousands of nucleotides make up a nucleic acid.
  48. 2 most famous Nucleic Acids
    • DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid
    • RNA – ribonucleic acid

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