KIN 494: EXAM 1 review

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KIN 494: EXAM 1 review
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2010-09-16 07:14:46
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  1. Tachycardia?
    More than 100 beats/min
  2. bradycardia
    less than 60 beats/min
  3. layers of heart? (out to in)
    • epicardium
    • myocardium
    • endocardium
  4. Heart chamber thicknesses:
    • Right atrium: 2mm
    • Left atrium: 3mm
    • Right ventricle: 4-5mm
    • Left ventricle: 8-15mm
  5. What is a pressure gradient and how does it relate to blood flow through the heart?
    In order for blood to flow through a vessel or across a heart valve, there must be a force propelling the blood. This force is the difference in blood pressure (i.e., pressure gradient) across the vessel length or across the valve. Blood in the heart flows from a high pressure gradient to low pressure gradient.
  6. What is another name for the atrial contraction?
    atrial 'kick' – pushes 30% more blood through
  7. Phase 1 of cardiac cycle?
    • Ventricular filling: AV valves open
    • -Occuring during mid to late diastole
    • -Atrial kick
  8. Phase two of cardiac cycle?
    • Systole has two periods
    • -Isovolumetric contraction
    • -Both AV valves and semilunar valves are closed
    • -Ventricular contraction – semilunar valves open
  9. Phase 3 of cardiac cycle?
    • Isovolumetric relaxation
    • -Both AV valves and semilunar valves are closed
  10. Who was William Harvey?
    first to describe correctly and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart
  11. Who was Augustus Waller?
    He created the first practical ECG machine with surface electrodes
  12. Who was Willem Einthoven?
    He invented the first practical electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) in 1903 and received the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1924 for it. Inspired by waller.
  13. What is Bachmann's bundle?
    The anterior internodal pathway. It spreads impulse of SA node to AV node and conducts impulses to the to the left atrium
  14. What is the difference in auto rhythmic and contractile cells?
    Auto rhythmic- the ability of cardiac pacemaker cells to create an electrical impulse without being stimulated by a nerve

    Contractile- the ability of myocardial cells to shorten in response to an impulse
  15. What are the two main types of heart cells we are discussing in class?
    Myocardial cells- mechanical contractile cells

    Pacemaker cells- conducting, automatic cells
  16. As depolarization advances PERPENDICULAR TO A lead, which way is the deflection on the tracing?
    Biphasic waveform or straight line
  17. What does biphasic mean with an EKG deflection?
    Partially positive and partially negative
  18. P wave?
    atrial depolarization and the spread of electrical impulse throughout the right and left atria (repolarization is hidden by QRS)
  19. PR segment?
    activation of AV node, his, branched, purkinje
  20. Q wave?
    depolarization of intraventricular septum
  21. QRS complex?
    ventricular depolarization
  22. ST segment?
    early repolarization of right and left ventricles
  23. T wave?
    ventricular repolarization
  24. P, Q, R, S, and T deflections from the baseline?
    • P- upward
    • Q- Downward
    • R- Upward
    • S- downward
    • T- Upward
  25. What causes the delay in conduction at the AV node?
    The SA node fires faster than the AV node and the delay gives the atria time to contract
  26. What is different from the right bundle branch and the left bundle branch?
    Left bundle branch goes to the left ventricle (thicker) and interventricular septum. It divides into fascicles.
  27. There are 6 limb leads divided into two categories. What are they?
    Standard and augments limb leads
  28. Which limb leads are bipolar (has a positive and negative electrode) and which are unipolar (single positive electrode reference point)?
    Bipolar: I, II, III

    Unipolar: AVF, AVL, AVR
  29. What are the precordial leads?
    How many are there? Six, V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6
  30. Which leads would be described as left lateral?
    I, AVL, V5, V6
  31. Which leads would be described as inferior leads?
    II, III, AVF
  32. V1 and V2 provide electrical information from where on the heart?
    Septal wall
  33. V3 and V4 provide electrical information from where on the heart?
    Anterior wall of left ventrical
  34. V5 and V6 provide electrical information from where on the heart?
    Lateral wall of left ventrical
  35. Normal P wave?
    2.5 boxes both ways (measured from incline to decline)
  36. normal Q wave?
    duration less than one box, amplitude, less than 1/3 the R wave
  37. normal QRS complex?
    measured from point where the first wave of the complex begins to deviate from the baseline to where is levels out again. Around 2-2.5 boxes duration
  38. normal ST segment?
    from baseline, shouldn’t depress more than ½ a small box, shouldn’t elevate more than one small box (amplitude)
  39. normal PR interval?
    .12 - .2 seconds
  40. normal QR interval?
    less than half the RR interval (under .38 sec)

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