TELECOMMS

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Anonymous
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35139
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TELECOMMS
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2010-09-16 13:30:19
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TELECOMMS
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TELECOMMS
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  1. Explain the process of encapsulation within the OSI 7 layer model
    Encapsulation places a header on the data from each layer until it reaches the data link layer where a header and a trailer is added, at the physical layer nothing is added and it is an unstructured bit stream. This is so that when received by the receiving DTE it can be stripped as it moves through the layers; the stripping of the headers is called De-capsulation.
  2. Explain the process known as peer to peer protocols
    This is the process that describes how the protocol stack communicates virtually with its peer and the adjacent protocols within its own stack
  3. Define what is meant by the term SAP and TSAP
    SAP – Service Access Points.

    TSAP – Terminal Service Access Points
  4. With the use of a diagram explain the method used by TCP in setting up a connection
  5. With the use of a diagram explain the method used by TCP in the graceful release of a connection
  6. Explain silly window syndrome and by what method is it overcome
    This is the case of advertising small window sizes & thereby increasing network loading through overheads. This is overcome by using the CLARK algorithm which states that at least half the maximum window must be available
  7. Explain the concept of the sliding window and why it is used in TCP
    ?
  8. Explain the concept of the congestion window & its relationship to the sliding window
    ?
  9. Explain the concept of the congestion window and its relationship to the sliding window
    The congestion window determines the number of bytes that can be sent at any time. This is a means of stopping the link between two places from getting overloaded with too much traffic
  10. Explain the fragment offset principle used in IP
    This is when a device cannot handle the IP packet size. The flags, if set will allow fragmentation. The fragmentation offset specifies how far the data is from the original IP header
  11. With the aid of a diagram explain the three main classes of IP addresses and the associated subnet masks including the dotty decimal ranges for each class
  12. Given the following IP slash notation 172.168.252.89/22 calculate the Net ID, the user address range and the broadcast address
    (i) Subnet Mask - 255.255.252.0

    (ii) Net ID – 172.168.252.0

    (iii) 1st Address – 172.168.252.1

    (iv) Lst Address – 172.168.252.254

    (v) Broadcast – 172.168.252.255
  13. Given the following slash notation 152.108.151.197/22 and the following VLSM 255.255.255.128 calculate the number of subnets and the Net ID, the user address range and the broadcast address of the 5th subnet
    (i) Subnet Mask - 255.255.252.0

    (ii) Net ID – 152.108.150.0

    (iii) 1st Address – 152.108.150.1

    (iv) Lst Address – 152.108.150.126

    (v) Broadcast – 152.108.150.127
  14. Explain the principle of the protocol ARP and how it works within TCP/IP
    ?
  15. What is meant by RARP and where is it used and why
    ?
  16. How does MPLS ensure ordered and accurate delivery over the MPLS network
    ?
  17. Explain the uses of the CoS, S and TTL fields in the MPLS header
    ?
  18. Explain what the label information base is and its function within an MPLS network
    ?

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