BIO 153 P3

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BIO 153 P3
2010-09-24 11:56:47

Biology Lab
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  1. genetic diversity
    • the total genetic information contained within all the individuals of a species
    • it is measured as the number and relative frequency of all alleles present in a species
  2. species diversity
    • is based on the variety of species on Earth
    • measured by quantifying the number and relative frequency of species in a particular region
  3. ecosystem diversity
    the array of biotic communities in a region along with abiotic components, such as soil, water, and nutrients
  4. endemic species
    species that are found in an area and nowhere else
  5. invasive species
    • species that are nonnative competitors, diseases, or predators
    • grow to large population size
    • disrupt species native to the area
  6. endangered species
    species which are almost certain to go extinct unless effective conservation programs are put in place
  7. factors that cause endangerment
    • 1. habitat loss - most important factor in terrestrial environments
    • 2. invasive species
    • 3. overexploitation - dominant problem for marine species
    • 4. pollution - dominant problem for freshwater species
    • 5. native species interactions
    • 6. natural causes
  8. problems with habitat fragmentation
    • 1. it can reduce habitats to a size that is too small to support some species
    • 2. it reduces the ability of individuals to disperse from one habitat to another
    • 3. creates large amounts of "edge" habitat (subject to invasion by weedy species and are exposed to more intense sunlight and wind)
    • 4. large drop in biomass or the total amount of fixed Carbon
  9. strategies of a lasting solution to the biodiversity crisis
    • 1. sustainability - the managed use of resources at a rate only as fast as the rate at which they are replaced
    • 2. stabilizing human population size and resource use
    • 3. ex situ conservation - the preservation of species in zoos, aquaria, wildlife ranches, seed banks, or other artificial settings
    • 4. ecosystem restoration
  10. ecology
    the study of how organisms interact with each other and their environment
  11. biotic factors
    living things that organisms interact with--all the organisms that are part of the individual's environment
  12. abiotic factors
    non-living things organisms interact with--all the chemical and physical factors, such as temperature, light, water, and nutrients, that influence the distribution and abundance of organisms
  13. ecosystem
    all of the organisms within a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact
  14. niche
    • the sum of a species' use of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment (range of resources it can use and range of conditions it can tolerate)
    • the presence or absence of a particular species depends on whether its niche requirements are met
  15. species richness
    the number of different species in an environment
  16. biodiversity
    the totality of genes, species, and ecosystems in a region. These three levels describe different aspects of living systems and are measured in different ways
  17. Manipulative experiment
    • you manipulate the independent variable and then look for an effect on the dependent variable
    • your controls make sure that any effect you observe actually occurs as a result of your manipulation of the independent variable
  18. Non-manipulative or correlational studies
    • you look for naturally occurring differences in the independent variable and then see if the dependent variable changes in relation to the independent variable
    • limitation of this kind of study is that it is harder to demonstrate a causal relationship
    • use controls to reduce this limitation