Abnormal Psych test 1

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Abnormal Psych test 1
2010-09-16 19:44:56
Abnormal Psych test

Abnormal Psych test 1
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  1. abnormal psychology/ psychopathology
    the subfield of psychology devoted to the study of mental disorders
  2. reliability
    the consistenct of a test, measurment, or category system
  3. validity
    the accuracy of a test, measurement, or category system
  4. precipitating causes
    the immediate trigger or pricipitate of an event
  5. predisposing causes
    the underlying processes that create conditions making it possible for a precipitating cause to trigger an event
  6. animism
    belief in the existence and power of a spirit world
  7. humours
    four bodily fluids believed, by hippocrates and greek doctors, to control health and disease
  8. hysteria
    a term used for centuries to describe a syndrome of symptoms that appear neurological, but do not have a neurological cause; now classified as conversion disorder
  9. suggestion
    the physcical and psychological effects of mental states such that belief, confidence, and submission to authority, and hope
  10. paradigms
    overall scientific worldviews, which, according to philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn, radically shift at various points in history
  11. reductionism
    explaining a disorder or other complex phenomon using only a signle idea or perspective
  12. natural categories
    categories that usually work reasonably well in everyday life despite their lack of precision
  13. diathesis-stress model
    the view that the development of a disorder requires the interaction of diathesis (predisposing cause) and a stress (precipitating cause)
  14. general paresis
    a disease, due to syphilis infection, that can cause pychosis, paralysis, and death
  15. psychosocial dwarfism
    a rare disorder in which the physical growth of children deprived of emotional care is stunted
  16. biopsychosocial model
    a perspective in abnormal psychology that integrates biological, psychological, and social components
  17. correlation
    a statistical term for a systematic association between variables
  18. central nervous system
    the control center for transmitting information and impulses throughout the body, consisting of the brain and the spinal cord
  19. neuron
    an individual nerve cell
  20. cortex
    the folded matter on the outside of the brain that controls humans advanced cognitive functions
  21. thalamus
    a subcortical brain structure involved in routing and filtering sensory input
  22. hypothalamus
    a subcortical brain structure that controls the endocrine, or hormonal, system
  23. basal ganglia
    a subcortical brain structure involved in the regulation of movement
  24. neurotransmitters
    chemicals that allow nuerons in the brain to communicate by traveling between them
  25. synapse
    point of connection between neurons
  26. synaptic cleft
    the tiny gap between one neuron and the next at a synapse
  27. receptors
    the ares of a neuron that recieve neurotransmitters from adjacent neurons
  28. SSRI's
    the second generation class of antidepressant medication that block the reuptake of serotonin from the synapse; used in the treatment of depression and other disorders
  29. PNS
    the network of nerves throught the body that carry information and impulses to and from the CNS
  30. somatic nervous system
    connects the central nervous system with the sensory organs and skeletal muscles
  31. autonomic nervous system
    the part of the PNS that regulates involuntary bodily systems, such as breathing and heart rate; it is made up of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
  32. sympathetic nervous system
    the part of the autonomic nervous system that activates the bodys response to emergency and arousal sistuations
  33. parasympathetic nervous system
    the part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the bodys calming and energy-conserving funtions
  34. endocrine system
    the system of glands that controls the production and release of hormones
  35. hormones
    chemicals released by the endocrine system that regulate sexual behavior, metabolism, and physical growth
  36. family pedigree studies
    studies designed to investigate whether a disorder runs in families
  37. twin studies
    studies which compare concordance rates for identical and nonidentical twins for a given disorder
  38. concordance rate
    in a group of twins, the percentage that both have the same disorder
  39. adoption studies
    studies designed to compare the concordance rates for a given disorder of biological versus nonbiological parent-child pairs
  40. genetic linkage
    studies looking for the specific genetic material that may be responsible for the genetic influence on particular disorders
  41. natural selection
    the evolutionary theory and process by which organsims, over generations, tend to change and develop traits and behaviors that enhance survival and reproduction
  42. prefrontal lobotomy
    the surgical destruction of brain tissue connecting the prefrontal lobes with other areas of the brain
  43. insulin coma
    the deliberate induction of a seizure and coma using insulin; formerly used to treat certain mental disorders
  44. electroconvulsive therapy
    a treatment for severe depression that invloves passing electric current through the brain to induce siezures
  45. psychotropic
    medications designed to affect mental functioning
  46. agonsit
    drugs that increase neurotransmission
  47. antagonist
    drugs that reduce or block neurotransmission
  48. psychodynamic
    the theoretical perspective that began with freuds work and is associated with emphasis on the unconscious mental processes, emotional conflict, and influence of childhood on adult life
  49. unconscious
    descriptively, mental contents that are outside of awareness; also, the irrational, instinctual part of the mind in freuds topographic theory
  50. repression
    a defense mechanism consisting of the forgetting of painful and unacceptable mental content
  51. conscious
    descriptively; mental contents that are within awareness; also, the rational part of the mind in freuds topographic theory
  52. topographic theory
    Freuds first model of the mind, divided into the unconscious, conscious, and presonscious parts
  53. preconscious
    the Freuds topographic model, mental contents that are not the focus of conscious attention but are accessible because they are not repressed
  54. structural model
    Freuds final model of the mind, divided into the id, ego, and superego
  55. Id
    in Freuds structual theory, the part of the mind containing instinctual urges
  56. superego
    in freuds structrual theory, the part of the mind that contains moral judgements and evaluates the self
  57. ego
    in freuds structural theory, the part of the mind that is oriented to the external world and mediates the demands of the id and superego
  58. defense mechanisms
    unconscious, automatic mental processes that reduce anxiety by warding off unacceptable thoughts and feelings
  59. diagnoses
    categories of disorders or diseases according to a classification system
  60. assessment
    the process of gathering informatio nin order to make a diagnoses
  61. interjudge reliability
    consistency or agreement between mulitple judges
  62. test-retest reliability
    consistency or agreement between multiple administrations of the same test over time
  63. dimensional system
    a diagnostic system in which individuals are rated for the degree to which they exhibit certain traits
  64. categorical system
    a diagnostic system, like the DSM system, in which individuals are diagnosed according to whether or not they fit certain categories
  65. the DSM is atheoritical
    not based on any theoretical perspective; based on fact
  66. symptom disorders
    disorders characterized by the unpleasant and unwanted forms of distress and/or impairment
  67. personality disorders
    disorders characterized by extreme and rigid personality traits that cause distress or impairment
  68. comorbidity
    the presence of two or more disorders in one person, or a general association between two or more different disorders
  69. ego-dystonic
    behaviors, thought, or feelings that are experience by an individual as distressing and unwelcome
  70. ego-syntonic
    behaviors, thoughts, or feelings that are experienced by an individual as consisten with their sense of self
  71. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)
    a scale rating an individual's level of functioning used for AXIS V of the DSM-IV-TR
  72. "mental disorders " term interchangable with
    • psychological disorders
    • psychiatric disorders
  73. insane/insanity
    legal term, not used in field unless used in a legal context
  74. US Dept of Health and Human Services concluded what?
    "mental disorder is the 3rd largest cause of death in US"
  75. What is the lifetime prevelance of mental disorders?
  76. Why is it important to consider the context which Abnormal behavior occurs?
    • 1. to define behavior as abnormal you must know the circumstances surrounds behavior
    • 2. the context which abnormality occurs can help explain it
    • 3. abnormal behavior is influenced by demographic context
  77. because of cultural and historical relativism, we cannot make absolute statements about what constitues abnormal behavior
  78. continuum
    • not "either or thing",
    • abnormal behaviors are often exaggerations of normal states
  79. normal
    part of a healthy developmental process
  80. normative
    " a lot of people are doing it"
  81. Defining abnormality
    • Help seeking
    • Irrational/dangerous behavior
    • Deviance
    • Emotional distress
    • Significant impairment

    violation of cultural norms, expectations, or behaviors
  82. What system is used to classify abnormality?
    the DSM system
  83. what is the DSM?
    • Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
    • published by the american psychiatric association
    • in its fourth edition
  84. Psychiatrist vs Psychologist
    psychiatrist prescibes medication while a psychologist provides therapy
  85. how many axis are there in the Multiaxial Classificaion system
  86. what does Axis I, of the multiaxial classification system include?
    clinical disorders

  87. what does Axis II, of the multiaxial classification system include?
    personality disorders

    mental retardation
  88. what does Axis III, of the multiaxial classification system include?
    physical health problems (chronic conditions)
  89. what does Axis IV, of the multiaxial classification system include?
    • **focuses on psychosocial and enviromental stressors**
    • primary support group- group you count on when you need help
    • social enviroment- general social arena
    • educational- schooling
    • occupational- work related
    • housing- lack of acces to safe and affordable housing
    • economic- don't have enough money to get by
    • access to healthcare services- not able to get healthcare; underinsured
    • legal system- related interactions w/ legal system
    • other- other psychosocial and enviromental problems (war, natural disaster)
  90. what does Axis V, of the multiaxial classification system include?
    • GAF rating
    • Based on
    • 1.severity of symptoms
    • 2. extent of impairment
  91. what are the 3 domains of impairment?
    social, occupational, academic
  92. What are many Issues of Diagnosis?
    • 1. system is not exact
    • 2. many individuals dont fit neatly into categories
    • 3. lose information- by putting people into one category information not related to that category can be lost
    • 4.stigmatizing-- assumptions made by people about diagnosis of people w/ disorders
    • 5. system is necessary-- system affords the ability to communicate conviently between professionals
    • 6. categorical vs dimensional
    • 7. reliability
    • 8. contruct validity
    • 9. culture- different cultures have different norms and behaviors
  93. What are 3 advantages to diagnosis?
    • 1. classification allow clinicians to communicate more effectively about their work
    • 2. classification facilitates research on the causes of disorders
    • 3. classification facilitates decisions about which treatments are most likely to be helpful