A&P Class - Exam #1 - Set #1

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trulyabaker
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35189
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A&P Class - Exam #1 - Set #1
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2010-09-21 19:15:22
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Anatomy Physiology
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Exam #1 Study Cards, Chapters 1, 5,
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  1. What are the Levels of Organization? (in specific order)
    • 1. Subatomic particles
    • 2. Atom
    • 3. Molecule
    • 4. Macromolecule
    • 5. Organelle
    • 6. Cell
    • 7. Tissue
    • 8. Organ
    • 9. Organ System
    • 10. Organism

  2. What are the eleven (11) Organ Systems?
    • 1. Intigumentary -
    • 2. Skeletal -
    • 3. Muscular -
    • 4. Nervous -
    • 5. Endocrine -
    • 6. Cardiovascular -
    • 7. Lymphatic -
    • 8. Digestive -
    • 9. Respiratory -
    • 10. Urinary -
    • 11. Reproductive -

    • Discription of the them... (edit later) pg8 Table 1.2 (skim study)
  3. Figure 1.9 (B) Anterior View - Memorized

    Name the body caviites


    • Cranial Cavity
    • Vertebral canal
    • Mediastinum
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • Right pleural cavity (right lung)
    • Pericardial cavity (heart)
    • Thoracic Cavity
    • Left pleural cavity (left lung)
    • Abdominopelvic cavity
    • Adominal cavity
    • Pelvic cavity
  4. Figure 1.9 (A) Lateral View - Memorized

    Name the body caviites


    • Cranial cavity (brain)
    • Vertebral cavity (spin)
    • Thoracic cavity
    • Diaphragm (dome shaped) (definate line of demarcation)
    • Abdominpelvic cavity
    • Abdominal cavity
    • Pelvic cavity

    • > The Cranial cavity and Vetebral cavity are named the "Dorsal cavities" (back)
    • > The Thoracic and Adominopelvic cavities are named the "Ventral cavities" (front)
  5. What is science?
    Questions and observations that have lead to knowledge.
  6. What is anatomy?
    The study of the structure of the human body.

    what things look like - where they are - what they are attached to = NOTHING ABOUT WHAT IT DOES
  7. What is physiology?
    The study of the function of the human body.

    what things do -
  8. What are the characteristics of life (10)?
    • 1. Movement -
    • 2. Resonsiveness -
    • 3. Growth -
    • 4. Reproduction -
    • 5. Respiration -
    • 6. Digestion -
    • 7. Absorption -
    • 8. Circulation -
    • 9. Assimulation -
    • 10. Excretion -


    > can fill in the defiintions of in later...
  9. What are the requirements of organisms?
    • 1. Water
    • 2. Food
    • 3. Oxygen
    • 4. Heat
    • 5. Pressure
  10. What is homeostasis?
    The body's mainenance of a stable internal enviornment.
  11. What are homeostatic mechanisms?
    They are self-regulating control systems of the body that help to maintian homestasis.
  12. What are the three (3) components that homeostatic mechanisms share.
    • 1. Receptors - provides information about the stimuli
    • 2. Control Center - tells what a particular value should be (called a set point)

    3. Effector - elicits responses that change conditions in the internal enviornment


    > could put Figure 1.6 in here from page 10
  13. What is the hypothalamus?


    - probably not a required question
    It is the "thermostat"-sensitive region in a control cent of the brain.
  14. What is the negative feedback mechanism?
    A process that moves conditions towards the normal state.

    The most common type of feedback mechanism (loop).

    Example: body temperature, blood pressure, glucose regulation
  15. What is the positive feedback mechanism?
    A process that moves conditions away from the normal state.

    example: blood cloting and child birth
  16. The human organism can be divided two portions. What are they?


    > may not be on test... pg 12
    1. axial portion - the head, neck, and trunk

    • 2. appendicular protion - the upper and lower limbs
  17. What is the difference between "parietal" and "visceral"?
    parietal - lines the...

    visceral - covers the...
  18. What serperates the visceral and parietal membranes?

    What is the name of the potential space between them?
    A serous fluid seperates them...

    The potential space is calle " ---- " cavity.
  19. The membranes in the thoriac cavity are?
    pleura - lungs

    pericardium - heart
  20. The membranes in the abdominopelvic cavity are?
    peritaneum - abdominal

    parietal - pelvic
  21. What is the anatomical position?
    • standing erect
    • facing forward
    • upper limbs at the sides
    • palms facing forward
    • thumbs out
  22. Relative Position:

    Superior vs Inferior
    Superior - closer to head

    Inferior - closer to feet
  23. Relative Position:

    Anterior vs Posterior
    Anterior - closer to the front

    Posterior - closer to the back
  24. Relative Position:

    Medial vs Lateral
    • Medial - closer to the middle
    • Lateral - out to the sides
  25. Relative Position:

    Bi-lateral vs Ipsi-lateral vs Contra-lateral
    Bilateral - paired structures on each side

    • Ipsilateral - two structues on the same side
    • Contralateral - two structures on the opposite side
  26. Relative Position:

    Proximal vs Distal (only in extremities)
    • Proximal - closer to where it hooks on
    • Distal - farther to where it hooks on
  27. Relative Position:

    Superficial vs Deep
    • Superfical - closer to the surface
    • Deep - more internal
  28. Relative Position:

    Internal vs External
    • Internal - inside the body
    • External - outside the body
  29. Body Sections:

    What is the sagittal plane?
    • A lengthwise cut that divides the body into left and right portions.
  30. Body Sections:

    What is the mid-sagittal plane?
    [A length wise cut that divides the body into equal left and right portions]

    • When a sagittal section passes along the midline and divides the body into equal parts.
  31. Body Sections:

    What is the pari-sagittal plane?
    [A length wise cut that divides the body into equal left and right portions]

    • A sagittal section lateral to midline is called parasagittal.
  32. Body Sections:

    What is the transverse or horizontal plane?
    • It is when the body is divided into superior and inferior portions.
  33. Body Sections:

    What is the frontal plane?
    • It is when the body is divided into anterior and posterior portions.
  34. What are the nine (9) body regions?
    Right hypocondriac region / Epigastric region / Left hypocondriac region

    Right lumbar region / Umbilical region / Left lumbar region

    Right illac region / Hypogastric region / Left illac region

  35. What are the four (4) quadrants concerning the abdominal area?
    Right upper quadrant (RUQ) / Left upper quadrant (LUQ)

    Right lower quadrant (RLQ) / Left lower quadrant (LLQ)

  36. Diagram Figure 1.25 (a):

    Cephalic
    Orbital
    Otic
    Buccal
    Oral
    Cervical
    Pectoral
    Axillary
    Brachial
    Antecubital
    Umbilical
    Inguinal
    Digital
    Digital
    • Cephalic (head)
    • Orbital (eye cavity)
    • Otic (ear)
    • Buccal (cheek)
    • Oral (mouth)
    • Cervical (neck)
    • Pectoral (chest)
    • Axillary (armpit)
    • Brachial (arm)
    • Antecubital (front of elbow)
    • Umbilical (navel)
    • Inguinal (groin)
    • Digital (finger)
    • Digital (finger)

  37. Diagram Figure 1.25 (b):

    Occipital
    Vertebral
    Lumbar
    Gluteal
    Popliteal
    Plantar
    • Occipital (back of the head)
    • Vertebral (spinal column)
    • Lumbar (lower back)
    • Gluteal (buttocks)
    • Popliteal (back of knee)
    • Plantar (sole)

  38. How are "tissues" defined?
    Similar cells with a common function are called tissues.
  39. What is the study of tissue called?
    Histology is the study of tissues.
  40. What are the four (4) primary or major tissue types?
    • 1. Epithelial
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Muscle
    • 4. Nervous
  41. What are the three (3) types of intercellular junctions?
    • 1. Tight junction
    • 2. Desmomes
    • 3. Gap junction
  42. Describe a tight intercellular junction.
    • Tight Junction
    • > close space between cells
    • > located among the cells that form the lining
  43. Describe a desmosomes intecellular junction.
    • Desmosomes
    • > form "spot welds between cells
    • > located among outer skin cells
  44. Describe a gap intecellular junction.
    • Gap Junction
    • > tubbular channels between cells
    • > located in the smooth and cardiac muscles
  45. What are some general characteristics of Epithelial tissues?
    • - Covers the body surface and organs
    • - Forms the inner linning body cavities
    • - Lines hallow organs
    • - Always has a free surface (contrast with external and internal environment)
    • - Has a basement membrane (thin, nonliving layer)
    • - Are avascular (lack blood vessels)
    • - Cells readily divide
    • - Cells tightly packed
    • - Cells often have desmosomes (spot welding)
    • - Function protection, secretion, absorption, and excretion
    • - Classified according to cell shape and number of cell layers (simple and strasfied [many]) ***
  46. What are the nine (9) types of Epithelial tissues?
    • 1. Simple squamous epithelium - single layer, flattened cells
    • 2. Simple cubodial epithelium - single layer, cube-shaped cells
    • 3. Simple columnar epithelium - single layer, elongated cells
    • 4. Pseudostratified columnar epithelium - single layer, elongated cells
    • 5. Stratified squamous epithelium - many layers, top cells flattened
    • 6. Stratified cubodial epithelium - 2 to 3 layers, cube-shaped cells
    • 7. Stratified columnar epithelium - top layer of elongated cells, lower layers of cube-shaped cells
    • 8. Transitional epithelium - many layers of cube-shaped and elongated cells

    9. Glandular epithelium - unicellular or multicellular
  47. Epithelium Tissue:

    Describe Simple Squamous Epithelium.
    • - single layer of flat cells
    • - substances pass easily through
    • - line air sacs
    • - line blood vessels
    • - line lymphatic vessels
  48. Epithelium Tissue:

    Describe Simple Cuboidal Epithelium.
    • - single layer of cube-shaped cells
    • - line kidney tubules
    • - covers overies
    • - lines ducts of some glands
  49. Epithelium Tissue:

    Describe Simple Columnar Epithelium.
    • - single layer of elongated cells
    • - nuclei usually near the basement
    • - membrane at same level
    • - sometimes possess microvilli
    • - often have goblet cells
    • - line uterus, stomach, intestines
  50. Epithelium Tissue:

    Describe Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium.
    • - single layer of elongated cells
    • - nuclei at two or more levels
    • - appear striated
    • - often have cilia
    • - often have goblet cells
    • - line the respiratory passageways
  51. Epithelium Tissue:

    Describe Stratified Squamous Epithelium.
    • - many cell layers
    • - top cells are flat
    • - can accumulat keratin (dead, dead, dead)
    • - outer layer of skin
    • - line oral cavity, vagina, and anal canal
  52. Epithelium Tissue:

    Describe Stratified Cubodial Epithelium.
    • - 2 to 3 layers
    • - cube-shaped cells
    • - line ducts of mammary glands, sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas, (and only the developing portino of reproductive system)
  53. Epithelium Tissue:

    Describe Stratified Columnar Epithelium.
    • - top layer of elongated cells
    • - cube-shaped cells in deeper layers
    • - line part of male urethea and part of pharynx
  54. Epithelium Tissue:

    Describe Transitional Epithelium.
    • - many cell layers
    • - elongated and cube-shaped cells
    • - line the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra
    • - form barrier, prevents content from going back into the system
  55. Epithelium Tissue:

    Describe Glandular Epithelium.
    - composed of cells that are specilized to produce and secrete substances into ducts or into body fluids

    • - Two Types:
    • - Endocrine glands - are ductless
    • - Exocrine glands - have ducts
    • - Unicellular exocrine glands
    • - composed of one cell
    • - goblet cell
    • - Multicellular exocrine glands
    • - composed of many cells
    • - sweat glands
  56. Name this exocrine gland.

    Simple tubler

  57. Name this exocrine gland.
    • Simple branched tubular
  58. Name this exocrine gland.
    • Simple coiled tubular
  59. Name this exocrine gland.
    • Simple branched alveolar

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