Research and Statistics.txt

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Research and Statistics.txt
2009-12-15 22:51:03

Vocabulary for Research and Statistics
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  1. An organized process for collecting knowledge
  2. A group of logically related statements that explains things that have occurred in the past and predicts things that will occur in the future.
  3. A set of steps followed by scientists to ensure a common basis for conducting research.
    Scientific Method
  4. Research in which no manipulation of variables is involved an no cause-and-effect relationship is studied.
    Nonexperimental Research
  5. Research that describes the characteristics of a phenomenon without attempting to determine what causes the phenomenon.
    Descriptive Research
  6. A method of research used to determine relationships between two or more variables.
    Correlational Research
  7. Research that examines phenomena within the cultural and social context in which it takes place.
    Qualitative Research
  8. Research in which a cause and effect is unambiguously tested.
    True Experimental Research Method
  9. Research that is done when groups are preassigned to "treatments," such as gender, social class, and neighborhood, also known as Post Hoc Research.
    Quasi-Experimental Research
  10. Research that examines cause-and-effect relationships through the use of control and treatment groups.
    Experimental Research Methods
  11. The method and structure of an investigation chosen by the researcher to conduct data collection and analysis.
    Research Design
  12. Pure research which adds to the base of information in a field but has no immediate application.
    Basic Research
  13. Research that has an immediate application at the time it is completed.
    Applied Research
  14. Represents a class of outcomes that can take on more than one value.
  15. Assignment of values to objects, events, or outcomes according to rules
  16. The measure that reflects the outcomes of a research study
    Dependent Variable
  17. A variable controlled by the researcher in an attempt to test the effects on some outcome, the dependent variable.
    Independent Variable/ Treatment Variable
  18. A research design in which more than one independent variable is studied in various combinations with others.
    Factoral Designs
  19. When variables compete to explain the effects found in a study.
  20. A variable that has a potential influence on the dependent variable.
    Control Variable
  21. A variable that has an unpredictable impact upon the dependent variable
    Extraneous Variable
  22. A variable that is related to the variables of interest (such as the dependent and independent variable), masking the true relationship between the independent and dependent variable.
    Moderator Variable
  23. A statement of equality between groups in an investigation; the state of affairs that is accepted as true in the absence of other information. A starting point for observing the effects of the independent variable(s) on the dependent variable and as a benchmark for the comparison of chance versus significant differences between groups.
    Null Hypothesis
  24. A statement of inequality between groups in an investigation. Suggestion of directional or nondirectional relationships between groups.
    Research Hypothesis
  25. A research hypothesis that posts an inequality (such as a difference between groups) but makes no suggestion of the direction of that difference (such as more than or less than).
    Nondirectional Research Hypothesis
  26. A research hypothesis that posits an inequality between groups with direction to that difference (such as more than or less than).
    Directional Research Hypothesis
  27. The entirety of some group
  28. A representative portion of a population
  29. The ability to draw inferences and conclusions from data
  30. The degree of risk you are willing to take that you will reject a null hypothesis when it is actually true
    Statistical Significance
  31. The amount of risk one is willing to take that the null hypothesis is true even though it is rejected.
    Significance Level
  32. General information usually available through newspapers
    General Sources
  33. Secondhand sources of historical data, such as newspaper clippings and summary statistics
    Secondary Resources
  34. People or documentation, which presents firsthand information.
    Primary Sources
  35. A brief summary of journal article which appears before the actual article or in a collection of abstracts.
  36. Consistency in performance or prediction
  37. The most frequently occurring score
  38. The most frequently occurring score
  39. The score at which 50% of the scores in the distribution fall above it and 50% fall below it.
  40. The extent to which the results of an experiment can be generalized.
    External Validity
  41. The sum of all the scores in a distribution divided by the number of observations.
  42. The accuracy in concluding that the outcome of an experiment is due to the independent variable.
    Internal Validity
  43. The distance between the highest and lowest score in a distribution.
  44. Average distance of each score in a distribution from the mean.
    Standard Deviation
  45. The truthfulness or accuracy within the score of a test or interpretation of an experiment.
  46. The type of sampling used when the likelihood of selecting any one member of the population is known
    Probability Sampling
  47. When the likelihood of selecting any one member of the population is unknown.
    Nonprobability Sampling
  48. A sampling procedure allowing for the equal and independent chance of subjects being selected as part of the sample.
    Simple Random Sampling
  49. An unbiased criterion used in the selection of subjects for a sample.
    Table of Random Numbers
  50. A random sampling procedure in which increments determine who becomes part of the sample; for example, every third person is selected.
    Systematic Sampling
  51. The process of selecting a sample that represents different groups or levels of a population.
    Stratified Sampling
  52. A random sampling procedure used when subjects are known to be unequal on some variable in the population.
    Stratified Random Sampling
  53. A probability sampling procedure wherein units of subjects are selected, rather than the subjects themselves.
    Cluster Sampling
  54. A nonprobability sampling procedure wherein the selected sample represents a captive audience; for example, sophomore college students in an introductory psychology class.
    Convenience Sampling
  55. A nonprobability sampling procedure similar to stratified random sampling in that a particular stratum is the focus; however, a specified number is set to be selected, and once that number is met, no further selection occurs.
    Quota Sampling
  56. A stratified random sampling procedure wherein subjects in the sample are selected in proportion to how they are represented in the population.
    Proportional Stratified Sampling
  57. The magnitude of the difference between the characteristics of the sample and the characteristics of the population from which it was selected.
    Sampling Error
  58. procedures that allow inferences to be made from a sample to the population from which the sample was drawn
    Inferential Sampling
  59. The scale representing a hierarchy of precision on which a certain type of variable might be assessed.
    Level of Measurement
  60. Measurement that assigns labels that do not suggest quantity
    Nominal level of Measurement
  61. measurement that assigns only rank order to outcome.
    Ordinal Level of Measurement
  62. measurement that assigns values representing equal distances between points but that does not allow for proportional comparisons.
    Interval Level of Measurement
  63. measurement that allows for proportional comparison and a meaningful zero.
    Ratio Level of Measurement
  64. a variable that has an underlying continuum that can take on any value.
    Continuous Variable
  65. a variable that can take on one of several mutually exclusive values.
    Discrete or Categorical Variable
  66. consistency in performance or prediction.
  67. True score plus error score
    Observed Score
  68. The actual score for someone on some test.
    True Score
  69. The part of an individual’s observed score that is attributable to method or trait variance or error.
    Error Score
  70. the part of an individual’s error score that is due to characteristics of the test or test taking situation
    Method Error
  71. the part of an individual’s error score that is attributable to characteristics of the individual
    Trait Error
  72. an index of the strength of a relationship between two variables. It ranges in value from -1.00 to 1.00. it can be positive or negative
    Correlation Coefficient
  73. numerical index of the relationship between a set of variables
    Reliability coefficient
  74. a measure of how stable a test is over time.
    Test-retest reliability
  75. examines consistency between forms. The relationship of two tests made from the same pool of items.
    Parallel-forms reliability (aka Equivalence)
  76. a measure of the consistency from rater to rater. Consistency of results produced by the same test given by different people
    Inter-rater reliability
  77. examines how unified the items are in a test or assessment. A measure of reliability which examines the unidimensional nature of a test
    Internal consistency
  78. indicates the extent to which a test represents the universe of items from which it is drawn. The extent to which a test fairly represents the universe of all possible questions that might be asked
    Content Validity
  79. how well a test estimates (concurrent validity) or predicts (predictive validity) performance outside of the testing situation; a measure of the extent to which a test is related to some criterion
    Criterion Validity
  80. the extent to which the results of a test are related to an underlying psychological construct. The extent to which a test truly measures a proposed psychological ability of skill and is related to an underlying theory or model of behavior
    Construct Validity
  81. various traits are measured using various methods. Regardless of how they are measured the scores are related. Thus, if the same trait is measured using different methods, the scores should be related, and if different traits are measured using the same methods, the scores should not be related.
    Multitrait-multimethod matrix
  82. a component of construct validity in which method variance is shared when measuring the same traits.
    Convergent validity
  83. a component of construct validity in which trait variance is shared when using the same method.
    Discriminant Validity
  84. test used to measure knowledge of a specific area
    Achievement tests
  85. tests with standard instructions and scoring procedures which are used for all administrations of the test. One type of achievement test
    Standardized tests
  86. Tests designed for a specific purpose with specific scoring and instructions for that purpose. One type of achievement test.
    Researcher/Teacher-made tests
  87. tests allowing you to compare individual’s test performance to the test performance of other individuals. A test in which the individual’s performance is compared with the results of a larger group of peers.
    Norm-referenced tests
  88. tests defining a specific criterion or level of performance, and the only thing of importance is the individual’s performance, regardless of where that performance might stand in comparison with others. A test measures mastery of specific definitions of performance for an individual in a particular content domain.
    Criterion-referenced tests
  89. a process of evaluating multiple choice items by using difficulty level and the ability of the item to discriminate or differentiate between group performance
    Item analysis
  90. the proportion of test takers who got the multiple choice item correct.
    Difficulty Index (D)
  91. an index that describes how well a multiple choice item differentiates between high scores and low scores on a test
    Discrimination Index (d)
  92. tests which assess an individual’s feelings about an object, person, or event
    Attitude tests
  93. a method of measuring attitudes. A method used in constructing attitude tests in which all of the items are assigned an attitude score. It is made up of nearly equal intervals for individuals to agree or disagree with various statements
    Thurston Scale
  94. Thurston Scale
    Method of equal appearing intervals
  95. a method used in attitude scales that requires the individual to agree or disagree to a set of statements using a five-point scale
    Likert Scale
  96. Likert Scale
    Method of summated ratings
  97. tests assessing stable individual behavior patterns
    Personality tests
  98. personality tests that ask the participant to respond to an ambiguous stimulus. It is assumed that the participant will project their worldview onto the stimulus.
    Projective tests
  99. interview questions that have a clear and apparent focus and a clearly called for answer (close-ended questions)
    Structured tests
  100. the researcher uses a device to keep track of time and measures the length of time that a behavior occurs. Recording behavior based on the amount of time it lasts.
    Duration recording
  101. Recording behavior based on the incidence or frequency of the occurrence of a particular behavior
    Frequency Recording
  102. a particular subject is observed/recorded during a particular interval of time
    Interval recording/time sampling
  103. all of the behavior of the target subject is recorded, with little concern as to the specificity of its content. Recording behavior on a continuous basis.
    Continuous recording
  104. Each score for each individual on a test or in an experiment.
    Data Points
  105. data that are unorganized
    Raw Data
  106. A form used to record raw data and often used to facilitate entry in to the computer.
    Data Collection Form
  107. A specially printed scoring sheet that can be read and scored by computer.
    Optical Scoring Sheet
  108. A special computer that reads optical scoring sheets
    Optical Scanner
  109. using numbers to represent data
  110. Simple measures of a distribution’s central tendency and variablility.
    Descriptive Statistics
  111. Set of tools to help you make decisions about how the data you collected relate to your original hypotheses and how they might be generalizable to a larger number of subjects than those who were tested. Procedures that allow inferences to be made from a sample to the population from which the sample was drawn.
    Inferential Statistics
  112. The general shape of data which includes a mean, median, and mode
    Distribution scores
  113. measures of central tendency represented as the mean, median, or mode.
    Measures of central tendency
  114. scores that have the same reference point and the same standard deviation. Scores that have been derived to create a common reference point and the same standard deviation to allow for easy comparison.
    Standard Scores
  115. It is the occurrence of variability which cannot be accounted for by any of the variables that you are studying. The unassuming explanation for differences between groups that implies that the differences are accounted for by variables other than those being studied.
  116. dictates that regardless of the shape of the distribution (be it normal or not), the means of all the samples selected from the population will be normally distributed. The theorem in inferential statistics which states that regardless of the shape of the population distribution, repeated samples from it will produce means that are normally distributed
    Central limit theorem
  117. Same as statistical significance
    Type I Error
  118. Inadvertent acceptance of a false null hypothesis. The acceptance of a false null hypothesis. The probability that a Type II error will occur can be reduced by increasing the size of the sample.
    Type II error
  119. The application of a statistical procedure to determine whether observed differences exceed the critical value, indicating that chance is not the most attractive explanation for the results.
    Test of statistical significance
  120. computation of the test statistic value. The value obtained by applying a statistical test of significance.
    Obtained value
  121. the minimum value you would expect the test statistic to yield if the null hypothesis is indeed false. The tabled value at which point the null hypothesis cannot be accepted; the minimum value you would expect the test statistic to yield if the null hypothesis is true.
    Critical value
  122. The leeway for variation a statistical value has; they help determine the critical value of the test statistic; a reflection of the sample size.
    Degrees of freedom
  123. an advanced technique that examines whether group differences occur for more than one dependent variable. Statistical procedures used to examine group differences that occur on more than one dependent variable.
    Multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA
  124. an advance technique that allows the researcher to reduce the number of variables that represent a particular construct and then use factor scores as dependent variables. An advanced statistical technique that allows for the reduction of variables representing a particular construct and then uses factor scores as dependent variables.
    Factor analysis
  125. a procedure that allows for the examination of trends and patterns that may exist in many different groups in many different studies.
  126. The notion that the stronger the effects of a treatment, the smaller the required sample size.
    Effect size
  127. “Sample surveys” examine the frequency and relationships between psychological and sociological variables and taps into constructs such as attitudes, beliefs, prejudices, preferences, and opinions.
    Survey Research
  128. Basic tool in survey research. A method of collecting data that is similar to an oral questionnaire. An interview can be informal and flexible or structured and focused
  129. Neutral information about the respondent (age, living arrangements…).
    Face-sheet information
  130. Questions have a clear and apparent focus and call for an explicit answer. Interview questions that have a clear and apparent focus and a clearly called for answer.
    Structured/Close-ended questions
  131. Questions allow the interviewee to elaborate upon responses. Interview questions that provide a broad opportunity for the participant to respond.
    Unstructured/Open-ended questions
  132. a general plan for survey research of what activities will occur when.
    Flow plan
  133. When the interviewer subtly biases the respondent to respond in one way or another. Bias introduced when the interviewer subtly influences the interviewee’s responses.
    Interviewer bias
  134. describes the linear relationship between two or more variables without any hint of attributing the effect of one variable on another. A method of research used to determine relationships between two or more variables.
    Correlational Research
  135. an index of the relationship between variables.
    Pearson product moment correlation (Pearson’s r)
  136. A plot of scores or data points which indicates the relationship between variables.
  137. the squared correlation coefficient, which indicates the amount of variance in one variable that is accounted for by the other.
    Coefficient of Determination
  138. the portion of unexplained variance. The amount of variance that is unaccounted for in the relationship between variables
    Coefficient of Alienation
  139. methods of research that examine changes over time
    Developmental Research
  140. receives treatment
    Experimental Group
  141. does not receive treatment
    Control Group
  142. Quasi-Experimental Designs
    Causal-Comparative Designs
  143. not characterized by random selection of participants from a population, nor do they include a control group. Research designs that are characterized by a lack of random selection and assignment
    Pre-Experimental Designs
  144. A type of experimental design in which one group receives only one test
    One-shot Case Study
  145. A type of experimental design in which one group receives both a pretest and posttest.
    One-group Pretest Posttest Design
  146. a true experimental design with a high degree of internal validity.
    Pretest posttest control group design
  147. a true experimental design with a high degree of internal validity in which posttests are the only measures taken
    Posttest-only Control Group Design
  148. a traditional experimental design in which there are four different groups of participants, and many different questions can be answered simultaneously with some relatively simple comparisons.
    Solomon four-group Design
  149. if what you see is a function of what you did…
    Internal Validity
  150. the quality of an experimental design such that the results can be generalized from the original sample to another sample and then, by extension, to the population from which the sample originated.
    External Validity
  151. a statistical tool that equalizes any initial differences that might exist.
    Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)
  152. A pre-experimental design in which groups are not equivalent at the beginning of the research and which generally lacks a suitable degree of internal validity. One of the most commonly used quasi-experimental designs.
    Nonequivalent control group design
  153. A pre-experimental design with limited internal validity. It is similar to nonequivalent control group design except there is no pretest
    Static group comparison design
  154. Observing one subject over a variety of behaviors… allow for an in-depth examination of specific behaviors.
    Single-subject research design
  155. Level of behavior associated with a subject before an experiment begins
  156. Methods of research that examine changes over time.
    Developmental Research
  157. assess changes in behavior in one group of subjects at more than one point in time; A method of developmental research that assess changes in behavior in one group of subjects at more than one point in time.
    Longitudinal Method
  158. examines several groups of people at one point in time; a method of developmental research used to examine age differences rather than age changes
    Cross-sectional method