Patho Test 1

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Patho Test 1
2010-09-17 12:38:01
Nursing Pathophysiology Test

Nursing 208: Pathophysiology Test 1
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  1. the progression and projected outcome of a disease WiTHOUT medical intervention
    natural history
  2. not clinically evident but is destined to progress to clinical disease
    preclinical stage disease
  3. long term and continuous with exacerbations and remissions
    chronic clinical course
  4. intermediate, or between acute and chronic, not as severe as acute but not as prolonged as chronic disease
    subacute clinical course
  5. severe, sudden, self-limiting disease
    (acute pancreatitis)
    acute clinical course
  6. the evolution of a disease; acute, subacute, or chronic
    clinical course
  7. a group of persons who were born at approximately the same time or share some characteristics of interest
  8. the proportion of people without the disease who are NEGATiVE on a given test or observation
    (true-negative result)
  9. the designation as the nature or cause of a health problem
  10. the proportion of people with a disease who are POSiTiVE for that disease on a given test or observation
    (true-positive result)
  11. not clinically apparent and is not destined to become clinically apparent
    subclinical stage
  12. level of prevention directed at keeping disease from occurring by removing all risk factors
    primary prevention
  13. level of prevention that detects disease early when it is still asymptomatic and treatment measures can affect a cure
    secondary prevention
  14. level of prevention directed at clinical interventions that prevent further deterioration or reduce the complications of a disease once it has been diagnosed
    tertiary prevention
  15. the probable outcome and prospect of recovery from a disease
  16. impairments that follow or are caused by disease
  17. studies that compare persons known to have the outcome of interest and those known not to have the outcome of interest
    case-control studies
  18. studies using simultaneous collections of info necessary for classification of exposure and outcome status
    (compare prevalence of lung cancer in a smoker and a nonsmoker)
    cross-sectional studies
  19. the number of people in a population who have a particular disease at a given time
  20. the number of new cases arising in a population during a specific time
  21. the study of disease in populations; measures disease frequency
  22. manifested by signs and symptoms
    clinical disease
  23. a compilation of signs and symptoms that are characteristic of a specific disease state
  24. things noted by an observer
    (abnl labs in kidney failure, elevated temperature, etc.)
  25. subjective complaints noted by the person with the disorder
    (pain, dizziness, dyspnea)
  26. signs and symptoms changes that describe the functional and structural changes that accompany a disease
    clinical manifestations
  27. a pathologic or traumatic discontinuity of a body organ or tissue
  28. the study of the cells and extracellular matrix of body tissues
  29. what are morphologic changes concerned with?
    the gross anatomic and microscopic changes that are characteristic of disease
  30. the fundamental structure or form of cells or tissue
  31. the sequence of cellular and tissue events from initial contact until expression of a disease
    (how the disease process evolves)
  32. multiple factors that predispose to a particular disease; what are the two types and give examples of each.
    • Risk factors
    • 1. modifiable: smoking, obesity, sedentary lifestyle
    • 2.unmodifiable: heredity, age, sex, race, gender
  33. factors that cause disease:
    a) present at birth, may not be evident until later in life
    b) caused by events that occur after birth, including injury, exposer to infectious agents, etc.
    • a) congenital conditions
    • b)acquired conditions
  34. the recognized etiologic agents:
    • 1. biologic agents (bacteria, viruses)
    • 2. physical forces (trauma, burns)
    • 3. chemical agents (poisons, alcohol)
    • 4. nutritional excesses or deficits
  35. the causes of disease; what sets the disease in motion
  36. an interruption, cessation, or disorder in the function of a body organ or system
  37. the cellular and organ changes that occur with disease and the effects that these changes have on total body function
  38. modifies and packages substances into secretory granules or vesicles
    golgi apparatus/complex
  39. functions as a tubular communication system through which substances can be transported from one part of the cell to another
    endoplasmic reticulum
  40. the site of protein synthesis
  41. the site of RNA synthesis
    the nucleus
  42. the complex structure of DNA and DNA-associated proteins dispersed in the nuclear matrix
  43. contains heredity material-DNA
  44. control center for the cell
  45. structures composed of regions from five different chromosomes, each with a part of the genetic code needed for synthesis of rRNA, which is transcribed exclusively in nucleolus
  46. semi-permeable, in that it is permeable to water but not all solute particles
    cell membrane
  47. what makes up the protoplasm
    • a. water
    • b. proteins
    • c. lipids
    • d. CHO
    • e. electrolytes
  48. the process that converts CHO, proteins, and fats into ATP
    cell metabolism
  49. breaking down stored nutrients and body tissues to produce energy
  50. constructive process in which more complex molecules are formed from simpler ones
  51. producing energy without oxygen
  52. producing energy in the presence of oxygen
  53. the breakdown of glucose to form ATP
    glycolytic pathway
  54. produces CO2 , H2O , and ATP as end products
    citric acid cycle
  55. the chief function of nerve cells
  56. cells take in and use nutrients and other substances from their surroundings
    (example: cells of intestine and kidneys absorb fluids and synthesize proteins to prevent constant diarrhea)
    metabolic absorption
  57. cells give off new substances as needed
    examples: adrenal glands-cortisol
  58. cells rid themselves of waste products resulting from metabolic breakdown of nutrients
  59. where does respiration occur?
    the mitochondria
  60. a decrease in the SiZE of a tissue organ resulting from a decrease in cell size of the individual cells or in the number of cells
  61. an increase in cell SiZE as well as an increase in the amount of functioning tissue mass
  62. an adaptation to increased muscle demand or to specific hormonal stimuli and is reversible
    (increase in muscle mass with exercise but decrease after no longer exercising)
  63. occurs in the absence of an appropriate stimuli of increased demand and does not revert back to normal
    (cardiomegaly in HTN)
    pathologic hypertrohpy
  64. an increase in the NUMBER of cells in an organ tissue
  65. can occur as a result of hormonal stimulation or increased functional demands or as a compensatory mechanism
    physiological hyperplasia
  66. a reversible abnormality of cell diffrentiation
  67. deranged cell growth of a specific tissue that results in cells that vary in size, shape, and appearance. strongly implicated as a precursor of cancer.
  68. the buildup of substances that cells cannot immediately use or dispose
    intracellular accumulations
  69. abnormal tissue deposition of calcium salts
    pathologic calcifications
  70. the macroscopic deposition of calcium salts in dead or dying tissue
    dystrophic calcification
  71. the deposition of calcium salts in normal tissues as a result of hypercalcemia
    metastatic calcificartion