Psychology test 1

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lisamariep
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35260
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Psychology test 1
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2010-09-18 14:39:17
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test 1
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  1. what is the sensorimotor stage? What is the age range and give an example
    - babies explore with touch, taste, smell, and sound

    - 0-2 years old

    - ex. jenny would rather taste the shoe than wear it on her foot
  2. What is the preoperational stage? What is the age range?
    children engage in symbolic imaginary play

    - 2-7 years old
  3. Sexual characteristics that develop during puberty and differentiate between the sexes but are not directly involved in reproduction, such as male facial hair and female breast development, are called:
    secondary sex characteristics
  4. which of the following is TRUE about romantic relationships in adolescence?

    A. most adolescent romantic relationships always lead to marriage
    B. serious romantic relationships are common during adolsecence and can lead to enhanced feelings of self-worth and competence
    C. romantic relationships should be discouraged in adolescence, because they typically lead to serious emotional and behavioral problems, especially in girls
    D. adolescent relationships are unlikely to have a significant impact on psychological or social development
    B. serious romantic relationships are common during adolsecence and can lead to enhanced feelings of self-worth and competence
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  5. parents who explain the reasons for insisting that their children behave in a certain way, including the consequences and effects of misbehavior, are using a form of disapline called:
    induction
  6. sara is fascinated with putting everything in her mouth. she is displaying which stage of piagets model?
    sensorimotor stage
  7. lucas and troy went to the grovery store. the boys began to pretend that they were cashiers, when they arrive home. They are displaying which stage of piagets model?
    preoperationl
  8. Parents who state: Do what i say, no questions asked are displaying what parental style?
    the authoritarian- parenting approach
  9. jason is 18 months of age and his mother neglects him on a regular basis. as a result, jason does not trust anyone and displays a great deal of fear an anxiety. Erik Ericsson would say that he is in what stage of psychosocial development?
    trust vs. mistrust
  10. what is egocentrism
    i want it so i assume you want it too.

    -
  11. what is centration
    the situation is important but i want what i want

    - have to be on time to pick daddy up from the airport.. start to leave but i forgot mr. bubbles.. i have to have mr. bubbles right now
  12. what is conservation
    the bigger glass has the most liquid

    you gave julie the bigger one
  13. what is concrete operational stage and age range
    (7-adolescence)

    - children can think logically on by what they see
  14. what is formal operational stage and the age ranks
    (adolescence- adulthood)

    Individuals can think in logical, hypothetical and in abstract ideas
  15. -children can achieve higher with adult instruction
    - zone of proximal development- what children can do with and without assistance
    - information processing model- you grow wiser with age

    .. these are part of whose study
    Lev Vygotsky
  16. who was it that criticized Piagets object permanence theory and believed that some babies have the ability to understand object permanance
    Renee Baillargeon
  17. how many pairs of chromosomes do you get from each parent
    23
  18. what does DNA do
    provides genetic instruction and provides development of organisms
  19. each chromosome has 1,000's of DNA stands called
    Genes
  20. XX is what sex chromosome
    female
  21. XY is what sex chromosome
    male
  22. germinal stage of neonatal development
    • egg becomes zygote.
    • zygote travels down fallopian tubes performing cell division, reaches uterus and embeds into the wall
  23. embryonic stage of neonatal development
    occurs 2-8th week of pregnancy. Embryo divides into 3 layers
  24. what are the 3 layers of an embryo
    • ectoderm
    • mesoderm
    • endoderm
  25. the ectoderm is what
    outer layer of embryo
  26. the mesoderm is what
    middle layer or embryo
  27. the endoderm is what
    inner layer of embryo
  28. the embryo becomes a fetus when?
    the umbilical cord is formed
  29. at approximately how many months does the mother experience fetal movement
    4 months
  30. what is the rooting reflex
    the baby turn towards the source that touches their mouth
  31. what is the sucking reflex
    occurs when infants mouth is touched
  32. grasping reflex
    holding on to things
  33. T or F

    -within hours infants show a preference to their mother
    true
  34. T or F

    - all babies differ in their temperament
    true
  35. true or false

    when a baby is born he/she can immediatly distinguish between voices
    true
  36. what do securely attached infants do
    explore a little periodically returning to mom
  37. what do insecurely attached infants do
    completly ignore mom leaving
  38. who developed the "strange situation" technique
    mary d salter
  39. by age 3 babies will have learned over _________ words
    3000
  40. __________ __________ states that children are born equipped to learn any language
    noam chomsky
  41. first year of life babies learn____
    speach patterns
  42. how do deaf babies communicate
    babble with their hands
  43. T or F

    language sequence tends to differ for all cultures
    false
  44. cooing and babbling language developement stage
    3 mo- ooo... aaaahhh

    9 mo- babies babble more in their own language
  45. one-word stage
    mama, ba ba, daddy
  46. two-word stage
    • no potty!!
    • where doggie?
  47. T or F

    babies tend to understand more than they can communicate. they may know exactly what they want but might only be able to communicate two words of it.
    true
  48. what is adolescence
    transition from childhood to adulthood
  49. what is puberty
    sexual maturity capable of reproduction.
  50. what influences puberty
    • health
    • environment
    • nutrition
  51. what are the primary sex organs
    reproduction organs
  52. what are the secondary sex organs
    • height
    • weight
    • voice change
    • bodily hair
  53. rapid change in height and weight
    growth spurt
  54. what is menarche
    a females first menstrual cycle
  55. what might be a negative to early matuation
    get picked on
  56. what might develop in people that go through a late maturation
    might develop a negative body image
  57. trust vs mistrust
    autonomy vs. doubt
    intuitive vs guilt

    are examples from ______ theory
    erik ericsson
  58. what is the negative resolution of Trust Vs. Mistrust, & what life stage does it affect
    - infancy (birth to 18mo)

    - physical and psychological neglect by caregivers leads to fear, anxiety, and mistrust of the environment
  59. what is the negative resolution of autonomy vs doubt and what life stage does this affect
    -toddlerhood (18mo-3yrs)

    - overly restrictive caregiving leads to self-doubt in abilities and low to self-esteem
  60. what is the negative resolution to initiative vs guilt and what life stage does it affect
    • - early childhood (3-6yrs)
    • - parental overcontrol stifles the child's spontaneity, sense of purpose, and social learning; promotes guilt and fear of punishment
  61. what is the negative resolution of industry vs inferiority and what life stage does it affect
    middle and late childhood (6 to 12 yrs)

    - negative experiences with parents or failure to "keep up" with peers leads to pervasive feelings or inferiority and inadequency
  62. what is the negative resolution of identity vs role confusion and what life stage does it affect
    adolescence

    - an apathetic asolescent or one who experiences pressures an demands from others may feel confusion about his or her identity and role in society
  63. what is the negative resolution of intimacy vs isolation and what life stage does it affect
    young adulthood

    - because of fear of rejection or excessive self-preoccupation, the young adult is unable to form close, meaningful relationships and becomes psychologically isolated
  64. what is the negative resolution of generativity vs stagnation and what life stage does it affect
    middle adulthood

    - self-indulgence, self-absorption, and a preoccupation with ones own needs lead to a sense of stagnation, boredom,and a lack of meaningful accomplishments
  65. what is the negative resolutions of ego integrity vs despair and what life stage does it affect
    late adulthood

    in looking back on his or her life, the older adult experiences regret, dissatisfaction, and disappointment about his or her life and accomplishments
  66. when you transition into adulthood what types of changes are you likely to go through
    • physical
    • adoption of new social roles
    • self definition evolves
    • identity-your beliefs and values
  67. what is the age range of early adulthood
    20-30
  68. what is the age range of middle adulthood
    40s-60s
  69. what is the age range of late adulthood
    60s plus
  70. what is ego identity
    look back and feel accomplished
  71. what is despair
    disappointment or regret in life
  72. what is the authoritarian parenting style
    do what i say; no questions asked
  73. what is the permissive parenting style
    tolerant, not demanding few rules
  74. what is the authoritative parenting style
    warm, responsive, set age appropriate rules
  75. what is the induction parenting style
    reprimanding with teaching
  76. emotional stages of dying
    • anger
    • denial
    • bargaining
    • depression
    • acceptance
  77. the anxiety of dying peaks at what life stage
    middle adulthood
  78. at what ages do children realize there is a difference in boys and girls
    18mo-2yrs)
  79. preschoolers distinguish opposite sex by..
    • dress
    • hairstyle
  80. what is intersexed
    both male and femal parts
  81. what is transgendered
    physically one sex but desire to be another
  82. what is transsexual
    surgically changed from one sex to another.
  83. what is sex
    male and female/intercourse
  84. what is gender
    masculinity and femininity
  85. what is gender role
    prescribed roles of men and women.
  86. what is sexual orientation
    the gender you prefer to be with
  87. gender-role sterotypes
    what men and women should act like

    men- should not be babysitters and cooks

    women should not be truck drivers
  88. what is social psychology
    how individuals think feel and behave in social situations
  89. what is social cognition
    how we interpret other peoples behaviors and how our behavior is affected by our attitude
  90. what is social influence
    how our behavior is affected by other people and situations
  91. what is person perception
    how we judge others
  92. what is social categorization
    you group people according to how they look (race, gender, age and so on)
  93. what is implicit personality theory
    a network of assumptions about types of people and behaviors
  94. what is attribution
    inferring why someone displays a behavior
  95. what is fundemental attribution error
    behavior occurred because of internal factors; ignoring external and situational factors
  96. what is blaming the victim
    the victim could have avoided the issue if this or that had been done
  97. what is just-world hypothesis
    people get what they get
  98. what is actor-observer discrepancy
    your behaviors are the result of external influence. the behavior of others are influenced internally
  99. what is self-serving bias
    success is due to internal causes failure due to external causes
  100. what is attitude
    a learned why to evaluate a certain situation negatively or positively
  101. what is cognitive dissonance
    two thoughts that conflict; you change behavior to justify attitude
  102. what is prejudice
    negative attitude towards a particular people group
  103. what is sterotypes
    assumptions made about other people groups
  104. what is in-groupd
    the group you are in
  105. what is out-groups
    the group you are not in
  106. what is out-group homogeneity
    individuals from an in-group begin to see similarities to there group in an out-group
  107. what is in-group bias
    your groups behaviors are more favorable than the out-groups
  108. what is ethnocentrism
    your culture is the best and should judge all other culture
  109. what was stanley milgrams study about
    • obedience
    • - participants would shock someone if they thought they were doing a service to science
  110. altruism
    helping others without expecting payment
  111. what is prosocial behavior
    any behavior that helps another whether selfish or not
  112. what is the bystander effect
    the greater number of people present the less likely someone is to help
  113. what is diffusion of responsibility
    people tend not to help because the resopnsibility is shared by the onlookers
  114. what is social loafing
    people tend to help less when it is a group effort
  115. what is social facilitation
    you perform better when people are watching if the tash is learned
  116. what is deindividuation
    people do more things in a group that is anonymous than when they are identified as members of the group

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