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True stomach of ruminants is ___?
What are some key features of the rumen?
- pH 5-7
- Constant temp 38 C
- Continuous mixing
The end products of the abomasum are _____.
Glucose, Amino Acids, Fatty acids and Glycerols.
Animal feeds can be classified into:
Roughages, Concentrates and Succulants
What is the CF content of roughages?
Greater than 18%
What are some examples of roughages?
What are the factors affecting the nutritive value of roughages?
- Stage of Maturity
- Soil Fertility
- Harvest and Storage Methods
How does the stage of maturity affect roughages?
The digestibility of DM declines as the plant matures.
What is the sum of digestible components? How is that calculated?
- TDN = CP + CF + NFE + EE(2.2.5) + Ash
Are rangelands or grass pastures recommended?
Rangelands are low in fertility. Grass pastures are recommended cause legumes have the ability to fix nitrogen.
What does sun bleached hay result in?
Loss of carotenes.
What are the 2 major groups of pasture species?
Grasses and Legumes
What is the quality of grasses?
Starch, Cellulose and low protein content
What is the quality of legumes?
- Quality protein and minerals:
- Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfer
Give 3 examples of Legumes.
What is the difference between silage and hay?
Silage is made without O2 and fermentation takes place, low moisture
What are protein-rich concentrates?
- Plant protein concentrates
- Animal protein concentrates
- Non-protein nitrogen feedstuffs
- Single cell proteins
What is a concentrate?
- Feed or feed mixture which supplies primary nutrients (Protein, CHO and fat) at a higher concentration but contains less than 18% CF and has low moisture.
- High in NFE, TDN but low in CF
Soybean meal contains the ______ toxic substances and is poor in _ vitamin
- Allengenics, goitrogenic and anti-coagulant factors
- Vitamin B
What is the CP of soybean meal?
Soybean meal contains _______ which are responsible for growth retarding when raw or non-heat treated soybean meal is fed to animals.
What is the Ca:P ratio for Cotton seed cake?
1 to 6 and causes deficiency symptoms.
Cotton Seed Cake contains:
- Good protein but low in cystine, methionine and lysine.
- Good source of thiamine but poor source of carotene
- Contains gossypol
What is gossypol?
It is an anti-oxidant found in Cotton seed cake and is an inhibitor/toxic to young monogastrics
Toxic symptoms of gossypol include:
- Weight loss
- Dypsnea (difficulty breathing)
- Cardiac irregularity
What a.a. is Sunflower cake low in?
What is the high fiber content of Sunflower Cake?
Coconut or copra cake has fiber that is suitable for monogastrics yes or no?
Ground nut cake contains:
- low cystine, methionine vitamin B12 and calcium
- Contains anti-trypsin
- Should not exceed 25% of diet
Peas meal contains:
- Low in CP
- Have higher content of lysine, methionine and cystine
Examples of plant protein concentrates:
- Soybean meal
- Cotton seed cake
- Sunflower cake
- Ground nut cake
- Coconut cake
- Peas meal
Examples of animal concentrates:
- Meat meal
- Blood meal
- Feather meal
How much CP does meat meal contain?
Bone meal contains ___% CP and is rich in?
Fish meal is has a __% of CP and high is _________ amino acids.
- methionine and tryptophan
What is the protein content of blood meal?
What is high in protein content but low in digestibility.
What is used as a substitute for nitrogen in ruminants.
The Nitrogen content of Urea is?
True/False: Urea must not be consumed too rapidly by animals for it may be toxic or lethal?
Young ruminants and monogastrics should or shouldn't be given urea?
What is hydrolyzed to ammonia?
What are some examples of single cell proteins?
What contains 18% of their total weight in CP.
Single cell protein
Name 3 energy rich concentrates.
- Cereal grains
- liquid feeds
- fats and oils
What are qualities of high energy feedstuffs:
- Readily available CHO (Sugar, starch, fat and oil)
- Low to moderate level of protein
What energy rich concentrate is low in lysine and tryptophan?
Which high energy concentrate is highly digestible and palatable?
Which energy rich concentrate is more drought resistant than corn
What in sorghum depresses digestibility?
Tannin and Prussic acid
What energy rich concentrate has a better a.a. distribution than most cereal grains and causes acute indigestion if not adapted to it?
What cereal by product is high in phosphorous?
Browers grain waste
What cereal by-product can become rancid very quickly since it is unsaturated.
What cereal by product should be limited to 10-20% in pigs
What cereal by product should be kept to 20% in pigs and is low in fiber and excellent source of thiamine and vitamin E
Overfeeding of molasses results in:
toxciity leading to incoordination
To avoid toxicity by molasses feed:
good quality forage
Cassava tubers contain:
Cynogenetic glucose can be broken down to hydrocyanic acide. This poison can be removed via:
- grinding to powder
Which feeds contain large percentage of water and low nutrient content.
What is voluntary feed intake?
Amount eaten without restriction
factors affecting feed intake
Animal associated factors: physiological, body weight, fatness, sex (make has faster growth and female can be pregnant or volume of stomach decreases) genetic potential, diseases
Feed factors: Feed palatability, deficiency of nutrients, physical form of the feed, deficiency of ADE reduce feed intake, physical form of the feed, digestibility of the feed, chemical composition of the feed, ratio of concentrate of roughage
Environment factors: temperature, rainfall, humidity, stresses, poor design of feeders
What is feed processing
The procedure of making alterations to a feed ingredient either by physical, chemical, thermal or microbial fermentation method, before it is fed to animals.
What are the 10 reasons for feed processing?
- Isolation of specific parts of seed etc. to facilitate digestion by microbes
- Alter physical form or particle size
- Improve palatablity
- Improve digestibility
- Prevent spoilage during storage
- Detoxification of toxic substances in feed
- Improves feed intake
- Facilitates transportation
- Facilitates storage
- Reduces wastage during feeding
Sign of an effective food processing method.
Increase in consumption and rate of gain (used more efficiently or reduced waste)
Give 4 examples of feed processing:
- Cutting and chopping: increase silage area
- Chemical treatment: improve utilization of low quality feedstuff
- Sun or artificial drying
- Direct heat treatment
What does heating of animal proteins to do them?
Less efficient in promoting growth
What happens to vitamins when heated?
Most are destroyed
What happens to some mineral elements when heated?
What happens to excessive heating of fat?
Production of acreolins which are toxic
What happens when ground grains are stored?
Destruction of vitamins by oxidation.
What happens when finely ground feedstuffs are given?
What happens when ground or chopped forage is given to ruminants?
What happens to ruminants when the level of feeding increases.
The digestibility decreases due to fast passage of feed into GIT.
What is mailard reaction?
A reaction that takes place when proteins are excessively heated in the presence of CHOs. Leads to binding of lysine and other a.a. to pentose sugars making them partially unavailable to the animal.
Excessive heating of fat will result in the production of ___ which are toxic.
Rations are completed as either _ feeds or __feeds.
Complete or supplementary
What is the CP in creep ration?
Who is creep ration meant for?
Early weaned piglets (4-5 weeks)
Who is growers and finishers ration intended for? What is the CP?
- Feed pigs form 5 months+
- CP = 12-15%
Animals require nutrients for:
What is the definition of Basal Metabolism?
The state of maintenance when it's body composition remains constant, when it does not give rise to grow or perform any work on its surroundings. The mi.nimum energy expended under fasting, resting, thermal-neutral conditions.
If feed is poor in terms of protein, energy, minerals (Ca, P) where will an animal obtain them when trying to product milk?
Dairy cattle in a single lactation produce X time as much DM in the form of milk as is present in her body.
TDN in a complete ration for a cow should be X in order not to limit consumption.
Average yielding cow should receive a ration with protein value of X % CP. For high yielders this % should be.
Which minerals are considered most important to a cow?
Which vitamins are typically lacking in the average dairy ration?
Vitamin A and D.
Which vitamins are synthesized in the rumen of a cow or synthesized in the tissue?
Vit B and Vit C, respectively.
What is the daily water consumption for a cow?
10-20 gallons or 45-90 liters.
What do sheep eat to receive most energy requirements?
Ewes at flushing and breeding need X protein in their ration?
What is the recommended Ca:P ratio for sheep?
1:1 to 1:4
What fat soluble vitamin may not be adequate during dry season from rations? Where can Ewes store this vitamin for up to 3-4 months?
Sheep require how much water per day?
- 6 liters if lactating
- 4 liters if fattening
What are the three EAA that are borderline in pig rations?
Which class of pigs need around 18% DCP?
Young suckling and weaners
Which class of pigs require 16% DCP?
Growers and Gestating, lactating sows?
Which class of cows need 24% DCP?
Boars and empty sows
Which mineral should be supplied in completed rations for pigs?
Which 2 minerals make up about 70% of a pigs body?
Ca and P
How much water should a pig consume a day? Young versus Mature?
- Young =1.5 to 2 liters/day
- Mature = 15-20 liters/day
What is the Ca:P ratio in growing or finishing pigs?
About 70% of pig's bodies are comprised of what 2 minerals?
Ca and P
What does calorific deficiency result into:
- Low production
- Retarded growth
- Delayed puberty
- Low reproductive performance
What is Lactic Acidosis and what animal is this known to affect?
Ruminants. Caused by excessive intake of high energy feed and reduced effective fiber intake resulting in reduced rumen pH caused by excessive lactic acid formation.
What are signs of Lactic Acidosis?
What is Pregnancy Toxaemia and which animals does this affect?
Sheep and goats. Occurs during last 6 weeks of pregnancy. There is a negative energy balance followed by a breakdown of free fatty acids into Ketone Bodies.
What is Lactational Ketosis and what animal is affected?
Dairy does. Fatty acids not metabolized to ketone bodies are synthesized back to fatty acids and stored in the liver cells. Excessive liver disease. Avoid feeding excessive grains.
What is periparturient hypocalcemia and what animal is affected, what is the treatment and prevention?
This disease is seen in dairy cattle following calving. It is caused by rapid loss of calcium through the milk. Treatment is calcium intravenously. Prevention is appropriate Ca and P at late pregnancy and lactation.
What is Hypomagnesemia and what animal does it effect and when is it affected and the signs?
It is a common problem in beef cattle on lush pasture. Grasses containing less Mg than legumes and when these grasses grow rapidly the Mg is greatly reduced. Hypomanesemia occurs in early lacation and is characterized by acute muscular spasms, ataxia, convulsions and death.
What is the treatment for Hypomagnesemia?
IV administration of Mg and Ca.
What is Urolithiasis, what is the cause and which animal is affected?
Male small ruminants Formation of concretions within the urinary tract obstructing outflow of urine. The cause is a high Phosphorous intake and phosphorus develops in the blood and urine.
What is the prevention to Urolithiasis?
Diet of Ca:P of 2:1. Salt should be included in diet of 1-2 of total DM to stimulate diuresis, adequate water available and avoiding diets high in Potassium.
What does low protein intake in animals result into:
- Retarded growth
- Low mild production
- Delayed estrus
- Difficult parturition and retained placenta
- Impaired reproductivity
- Attraction to blood
- Reduced resistance to diseases
What are the macro minerals?
Ca, P, Na, Cl, K, Mg, S
Water consists of what fraction of the body mass?
Deficiency in water will result into:
- Reduction of feed intake
- Rapid weight loss
- Delayed digestion
- Delayed assimilation and excretion of waste products through the urine
- Prolonged deprivation tends to thicken blood with increase in body temperature
What are the signs of pregnancy toxaemia in the ewe?
- Aimless walking and gait movement
- Twitching of eye and ear muscles
- Sternal recumbence, coma and death
Protein deficiency in ruminants:
Decreased appetite, weight, growth
Protein deficiency in poultry:
Decreased growth, feed, egg production/size, body weight
CHO deficiency in pigs:
Starvation ketosis in cattle:
Loss of body condition, nervous signs, anorexia, constipation, mucus covered faeces, rapid milk drop, acetone odour in breath
Deficiency of fat in pigs:
Affects the hair, skin, retarded sexual maturity
Deficiency of fat in chicks:
Poor growth rates, feathering and high mortality the first few weeks of life.