Agile.txt

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jdebenning
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35311
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Agile.txt
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2010-09-20 15:19:09
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Agile Scrum Lean Kanban
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Agile principles and putting them into practice
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  1. What is meant by saying Japanese - (JIT)
    "Just in Time" Manufactoring
  2. Who created in 1986 - "The new New Product Development Game" HBR and what was the game compared too
    • - Hirotaka Takeuchi/Ikujiro Nonaka
    • Compared new approach to Rugby
  3. Who started in 1991 - "The machine that changed the world" and what method was used
    - James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones, Daniel Roos - Lean thinking
  4. What companies did Ken Schwaber and Jeff sutherland work at as they bagan to formulate Scrum in early 1990's
    • Ken Schwaber at (ADM)
    • Jeff Sutherland at (Easel)
  5. what happended at OOPSAL 1995
    Ken and Jeff co-presented Scrum
  6. When and where was the Agile manifesto signed
    2001 and in Snowbird Utah
  7. what year did Agile software development begin to use the Scrum framework and who started user the Scrum framework with Agile
    2001 and Ken Schwaber and Mike beedle
  8. How many principles in the Agile manifesto
    12
  9. Name all Agile manifesto 12 principles
    • 1) highest priority is to satisy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software
    • 2) welcome changing requirements, even late in development.
    • 3) deliver working software frequently
    • 4) business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project
    • 5) build projects around motivated individuals and trust them to get the job done
    • 6) provide face-to-face communication
    • 7) working software is the primary measure of working software
    • 8) Agile process promotes sustainable development that will lead to a project team maintaining constant pace indefinitely
    • 9) attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility
    • 10) Simplicity is essential
    • 11) the best requirements, design, and foundation emerge from self-organized teams
    • 12) creating a team retrospective allows the team to become more effective to inspect and adapt on a regular interval.
  10. name all Agile Manifeto 4 values
    • 1) individuals and interactions over processes and tools
    • 2) working software over comprehensive documentation
    • 3) customer collaboration over contract negotiation
    • 4) responding to change over following a plan

    * while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more
  11. What is Agile
    • 1) a philosophy or style of software development expressed by the values and principles of the Agile manifesto
    • 2) Any and all of a large number of named and unnamed specific approaches to software development, including but not limited to XP, Scrum, and Crystal
  12. Scrum is not?
    • 1) a silver bullet
    • 2) a methodology
  13. What is Scrum?
    Scrum is a framework
  14. what is a framework?
    a framework has rules (roles, artifacts, and ceremonies) and can be played to fit your organization and business needs

    "Scrum is not a methodology, as there is not a book of answers to go to. Scrum is more of a framework...simple and not a lot of rules; however, very detailed and complex strategies can come out of it" - Ken Schwaber
  15. what makes up the soul of Scrum
    • - empirical
    • - collaborative
    • - self-organizing
    • - rhythm
    • - prioritization
  16. what does empirical mean
    - inspect and adapt to processes that are imperfect and generate unprdictable and unrepeatable outputs
  17. what does defined process control mean
    • - requires that every piece of work be completely understood. Given a well-defined set of inputs, the same outputs are generated every time (i.e. you should generate the same results each time)
    • - example: cooking recipe
  18. what is collaboration?
    • - it is an opportunity for two or more individuals or an organization to work together to achieve a common goal, which in-turn will better the team or organization not the individual
    • - it is not an "us against them mentality"
  19. what does it mean to be self-organized
    - As a team you plan, design, and create in-order to accomplish a desired goal
  20. what does it mean to have rhythm
    • - it is when the Scrum team is able to do their development to an even and steady tempo
    • - a deliverable is set in stone, with a date, by the team and any deliverable that has not met that date is considered to have failed
  21. what does it mean to prioritze
    - working on tasks that have more importance than their counter-part and add value
  22. what are the intrinsic values
    • - courage
    • - committed
    • - humble
    • - trustworthy
  23. what does it mean to deliver innovation
    • - you will never learn unless you fail
    • - explore
    • - discover
    • - pushing limits
    • - takes risks
  24. what does it mean to value discussion
    • - discuss in teams where and how each item below adds value:
    • - courage
    • - commitment
    • - humbleness
    • - trustworthiness
    • - transparency
  25. what are the mechanics of a sprint?
    • - product backlog
    • - sprint backlog
    • - daily scrum meeting
    • - 2 - 4 week sprint cycle
    • - sprint review
    • - potentiially shipable product
    • - sprint retrospective
  26. what are the roles on a Scrum team?
    • Scrum Team (PIGS)
    • - Scrum Master
    • - Product Owner
    • - Team Member
    • Others (Chickens)
    • - End Users
    • - Stakeholders
    • - The Wider Organization
  27. what is the role of the Product Owner?
    • - visionary and voice of the product
    • - groomer of the backlog
    • - prioritize backlog with ROI (BV) and Risk
    • - maintain the release plan
    • - representative of the end users and stakeholders
    • - accepts each story before considered complete
    • - sets achievable goals and negotiate to provide a win-win for the project
    • - 100% committed to the project
  28. what is the role of the Scrum Master?
    • - servant leader and impediment remover
    • - facilitator
    • - team protector
    • - follows agile priniciples and practices
    • - coach and mentor
  29. what is the role of the team member?
    • - self-organized
    • - self-managed
    • - cross functional
    • - mutual accountability
    • - 100 % dedicated
    • - 100 % Committed
    • - leave title at the door
  30. what are the two main problems with multi-tasking
    • 1) Switching cost
    • - time to switch
    • - error of switch
    • - rework
    • 2) Clark and Wheelright study
    • - 1 task 70% of the day
    • - 2 tasks 80% of the day
    • - 3 tasks 60 % of the day
  31. what are the artifacts of Scrum?
    • - product backlog
    • - sprint backlog
    • - sprint goal
    • - product increment
    • - impediment backlog
  32. what is a product backlog?
    • - prioritized list of epics, themes and stories (i.e. requirements)
    • - values and risk determine the importance
    • - owned and groomed by the product team
    • - 80/20 rule
    • - MoSCoW
  33. what is a release plan?
    • - created and managed by the product owner
    • - determined by team velocity
    • - timeframes is approximately between 3 - 6 months
    • - fix date
  34. what is a sprint goal?
    desired outcome of the sprint
  35. sprint backlog
    • - a list of tasks and acceptance criteria that the team commits to completing by the end of a sprint
    • - locked down after sprint planning
    • - owned by the team
  36. what are the common charts within a Scrum team?
    • - product burndown or burnup
    • - sprint burndown
  37. what is an impediment list and who manages the list?
    • - roadblocks are anything that was not accounted for during estimates
    • - list of organizational and team roadblocks
    • - managed by the Scrum Master
  38. what does it mean to have a "Potentially shippable product increment?
    • - this would qualify as "team definition of done"
    • - accepted by the product owner
    • - you are able to provide a demo
  39. what are the adapted ceremonies?
    • - project kick-off
    • - release planning
    • - pre-sprint planning (i.e story time)
  40. who initiates and guides a project kick- off?
    • - product owner
    • - a place where product vision is created
    • - defines the users
    • - defines the benefits
    • - creates the initial product backlog
    • - give a Scrum and XP Overview
    • - defines the definition of Done
  41. who and what is involved with release planning?
    • - product owner
    • - velocity based planning
    • - negotiation with the team
    • - understanding that things may, can, and will change
  42. what is pre-sprint planning and when does this take place
    • - occurs within a sprint
    • - team meets with product owner to breakdown, point, and create acceptance criteria for highest priority stories in the product backlog
    • - story pointing
    • - planning poker
    • - service provider
  43. What is sprint planning and when does it occur?
    • - you begin pulling stories from your product backlog
    • - you size and point stories
    • - team negotiation on stories
    • - team commits to stories for the iteration
    • - sprint planning occurs at the beginning of every sprint
  44. what is the daily Scrum and when does it occur
    • - is a daily meeting with the team and no more then 15 min
    • - team will answer three questions
    • - what did I complete since last daily
    • - what will I commit to completing by next daily
    • - are there any impedimates that are keeping me from completing my tasks
    • - occational fourth question
    • - thumbs-up or thoumbs-down, how are we feeling about completing our current sprint
    • - the team is to talk to each-other and not the Scrum Master
  45. what is a sprint review and when does it occur?
    • - demonstration of working completed and accepted stories to all stakeholders
    • - working software is the only true measur of progress
    • - no partial credit
    • - occurs at the end of each sprint (i.e. every 2 weeks)
  46. what is a sprint retrospective and when does it occur?
    • - team collaborates at the end of each sprint
    • - what worked well
    • - what can be improved
    • - team must commit to one actionable improvement for the next sprint
  47. What is the Scrum of Scrums and when does it occur?
    • - mechanism to facilitate cross team collaboration
    • - scaling ceremony, when you have multiple Scrum teams across the organization
    • - integrations
    • - same backlog multiple teams
  48. what are all Scrum ceremonies and describe what they are?
    • - kick-off
    • - daily scrum
    • - mid-sprint planning
    • - planning
    • - review
    • - retrospective
  49. Agile differences in fundamental project approach vs. Waterfall
    • - cost and resources are held constant and scope is variable
    • - quality becomes anything that is not seen as desirable by users or stakeholders
    • - knowledge workers are considered craftsman
    • - help produce the highest business value in short cycles of work
    • - failure and mistakes are part of learning not CYÅ mentality
  50. PMI vs. Srum
    • - progressive elaboration
    • - rolling wave planning
    • - process groups not phases
    • - product vs. project
    • - projectize is most preferred org structure

    • - inferred differenc:
    • - on whom does the responsibility fall?
    • - command and control - The PM manages instead of guides
  51. what are the three words to remember when driving an Agile team?
    • - act
    • - inspect
    • - adapt
  52. what does a vision statement entail?
    • elevator pitch to customer
    • - For
    • - Who
    • - The

    Is a

    • - That
    • - Unlike

    • - Our product
  53. what is a Minimum Marketable Feature?
    • - the smallest feature/capability that has value in the market place
    • - clear-cut and deliverble functionality
    • - provide significant value to the customer

    exampl: southwest online flight reservation system "the flight planner" is an MMF
  54. what are user stories?
    • - are product/service capabilities in the perspective of the user or customer
    • - a single line narrative of a desired functionality performed by a user to achieve some benefit
    • - lowest level of capabilities
    • - epics are large user stories
    • - themes are a groping of epics and or stories
  55. what is a use case?
    - provides a mechanism to describe the behavior of the system and its interactions with users and other systems. It uncovers all the detailed information about that system
  56. How and why do we create user stories?
    • Ron Jeffries' 3 C's
    • - card
    • - conversations
    • - confirmation
  57. Requirements are like what?
    • waves at the beach
    • - their all differenct sizes
    • - their unpredictable
    • - eventually they wear away
  58. how do you create user stories?
    • format for stories may start
    • - As a I can do to get
    • - to achieve , the can
  59. What does INVEST stand for and how does it help to create or check for quality of a user story?
    • - Independent
    • - Negotiable
    • - Valuable
    • - Estimable
    • - Small
    • - Testable
  60. how to begin breaking down a story?
    • - ask the question how are we going to demo the story
    • - ask the question how are we going to test the story
  61. how to create acceptance criteria for a story?
    - what is the definition of done is, for the story, to the PO and users
  62. what is pointing/sizing and how do we do this?
    • - based on relative sizing (effort, value, cost, risk, customer satisfaction, etc)
    • - use the fibonacci sequence
    • - planning poker
    • - team derived
    • - just enough
    • - velocity
  63. what is relative sizing?
    • - estimating the size and not being exact
    • example: do a relative sizing of countries population instead of trying to guess the exact number (i.e. from highest to least)
    • - USA
    • - Canada
    • - India
    • - China
    • - Australia
  64. what is the fibonacci sequence and how is it used?
    • - the first number is 0 and the second number is 1 and every subsequent number is the addition of the previous 2
    • - 0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,44,65,109
    • - Scrum Modified: ?,.5,0,1,2,3,5,8,13,20,40,100,~
  65. what is a common mistake in creating stories?
    • - bad example: as a dancing quest I want music so that I can dance and be crazy
    • - good example: as the host I want music at my party so that the uests can dance and have a good time
  66. what techniques do you use to point large backlogs?
    • Affinity Estimating
    • - silent relative sizing
    • - editing of wall
    • - placing items in relative buckets
    • - product owner "Challenge"
    • - store it
  67. one option for multiple teams and single backlog?
    • - create a master backlog
    • - each team has thier backlog compiled from master
    • - you have a chief Product Owner for master backlog
    • - Team Product Owner for respected team backlog
    • - CPO and TPO's need to speak with one voice
  68. Financials in an Ideal Agile environment
    • - team is dedicated 100%
    • - time is fixed

    ((team member 1 x rate) + (team member 2 x rate) + (team member n x rate)) x time + (specialist x rate x time)
  69. who is in the project kick-off, what is discussed, and approximately how much time is needed?
    depends on the size of the project 1 - 5 days

    • - Product Owner
    • - Scrum Master
    • - Scrum Team
    • - Users ( when available)
    • - Stakeholders ( when available)

    • - team should be well trained in Agile principles and best practices (i.e. methods)
    • - understand the product idea
    • - initial product backlog is created
    • - product vision has been established
  70. who is in the release planning meeting, what is discussed, and approximately how much time is needed?
    approximately 2 -4 hours

    • - Product Owner
    • - Scrum Master-
    • - Scrum Team
    • - Users ( when available)
    • - Stakeholders ( when available)

    • - understand the product backlog
    • - establish team velocity
    • - product vision
    • - establish release goal
    • - create release backlog
  71. who is in the sprint planning meeting, what is discussed, and approximately how much time is needed?
    approximately 2 -4 hours

    • - Product Owner
    • - Scrum Master
    • - Scrum Team
    • - Users ( when available)
    • - Stakeholders ( when available)

    • - understand the product backlog
    • - establish team velocity/capacity
    • - product vision
    • - retrospective action
    • - current product
    • - establish sprint goal
    • - create sprint backlog
    • - establish team commitment
  72. who is in the daily Scrum meeting, what is discussed, and approximately how much time is needed?
    approximately 15 mintues but no more

    • - Product Owner
    • - Scrum Master
    • - Scrum Team
    • - Users ( Chickens)
    • - Stakeholders ( Chickens)

    • - establish sprint goal
    • - create sprint backlog
    • - establish burn-down charts
    • - updated impediment list
    • - update tasks
    • - team continues commitment
  73. who is in the pre-sprint plannning meeting, what is discussed, and approximately how much time is needed?
    approximately 2 -4 hours

    • - Product Owner
    • - Scrum Master
    • - Scrum Team- Users ( Chickens)
    • - Stakeholders ( Chickens)

    • - business conditions
    • - product vision
    • - product backlog
    • - technology
    • - acceptance criteria
    • - broken-down epics
    • - groomed backlog
  74. who is in the sprint review meeting, what is discussed, and approximately how much time is needed?
    approximately 1 hours no more

    • - Product Owner
    • - Scrum Master
    • - Scrum Team
    • - Users
    • - Stakeholders ( Chickens)

    • - sprint review document
    • - sprint backlog
    • - demo increment
    • - sprint review document
    • - users acceptance
    • - product increment
  75. who is in the sprint retrospective meeting, what is discussed, and approximately how much time is needed?
    approximately 1 hour no more

    • - Product Owner
    • - Scrum Master
    • - Scrum Team

    • - sprint goal
    • - sprint backlog
    • - retrospective actions
    • - updated impediment list
    • - update tasks
    • - commitment
  76. How are principles defined in Agile?
    • - guiding ideas and insight about a discipline
    • - universal
  77. how are practices defined in Agile?
    • - give specific guidance on what to do
    • - need to be adapted to the domain
    • - must take context into account
    • - no such thing as best practices
  78. what are the most common 7 lean principles practiced in Agile?
    • - eliminating waste
    • - amplify learning
    • - decide as late as possible
    • - deliver as fast as possible
    • - empower the team
    • - build integrity
    • - see the whole
  79. what does it mean to eliminating waste in project?
    • - waste is anything that does not add value to a product
    • - value as perceived by the customer
  80. what does it mean to amplify learning in project?
    • - development is an exercise in discovery
    • - learn by discovery and creating multiple variations
  81. what does it mean to decide as late as possible in project?
    • - better decisions can be made when they are based on fact, not speculation.
    • - in an evolving market, keeping design options open is more valuable than committing early
  82. What are principles in agile?
    • - they are guiding ideas and insight about a disapline
    • - they are universal
  83. What are practices in agile?
    • - it is what you do to actually carry out the principle
    • - give guidance on what to do
    • - there is no such thing as "best practices"
    • - must take context into account
  84. What are the 7 basic lean principles in agile?
    • - eliminating waste
    • - amplifying learning
    • - decide as late as possible
    • - deliver as fast as possible
    • - empower the team
    • - build integrity
    • - see the whole
  85. Who was the mastermind behind new way of thinking "Lean"?
    - Taiichi Ohno
  86. What is anything that does not create vale for a customer?
    - waste
  87. What is the most fundamental lean principle, from which all other principles follow?
    - Eliminating waste
  88. what is the definition of waste?
    - Royce comments "every step in the waterfall process except analysis and coding is waste"
  89. what are the seven wastes of software development?
    • - partially done work
    • - extra processes
    • - task switching
    • - waiting
    • - motion
    • - defects
  90. what are the three rules to concider if you must produce paperwork that adds little customer value?
    • - keep it short
    • - keep it high-level
    • - do it off-line
  91. what is "one" of the biggest wastes in software development?
    - waiting for things to happen
  92. how do you reduce the waste due to defects?
    • - test immediately
    • - integrate often
    • - release to production as soon as possible
  93. how do you minimize waste in development?
    • - keeping the amount of unfished work in the pipeline at a minimum
    • - the way work is prioritized and released
  94. if work moved through a development organization in a just-in-time work flow, would you need a sophisticated tracking system?
    - no
  95. What work process is a good way to start discovering the waste in your software development process?
    - Mapping your value stream
  96. Is generating good software a production or a development process?
    - development process
  97. What does the development process like and what does it help you do?
    - development is like creating a recipe, learning by trial and error
  98. what are the differences with the development and production processes?
    • Development - designs the recipe
    • - quality is fitness for use
    • - variable results are
  99. Agile Scrum Master is responsible for three key things
    • - facilitating
    • - enforcing the values/principles/framework
    • - eliminating impediments
  100. what are the testers key items to pay attention too when working on an Agile team
    • - continuous interaction with product owner and developers to make sure stories are understood and that the acceptance test tracks the stories functionality
    • - making sure the acceptance test is being written while the code is being written
    • - testing the code against the acceptance test
    • - checking in the test case to the shared repository every day
    • - developing ongoing test automation to integrate acceptance and component tests into the continuous testing environmnet
  101. what are the five characteristics that an high-perfoming agile team will continuously demonstrate?
    • - they make sure they have the right people on the team
    • - they are led, not managed
    • - they understand their mission
    • - they communicate and collaborate continuoulsy
    • - they are accountable for their results
  102. what does the term UX stand for?
    • - UX is an acronym for "user experience." It's a term used to describe
    • the overall experience and satisfaction a user has when using a product
    • or system.
  103. What does Kanban mean in Japanese?
    • - Kan stands for "visual" and ban stands for "cards"
    • - another definition is "sign board"
  104. - what are the two types of planning using Agile?
    • - planning at the release level (i.e. roadmap for future releases of features/functionality)
    • - interation planning (i.e. sprint planning, 1 - 2 week cycles of work)
  105. what is a release?
    - a series of interations that accomplish some useful, networthy, and significant objective in the marketplace
  106. what are the two primary business benefits with the ability to release software more frequently?
    • - increase responsiveness to the customers ever changing market place
    • - reduce risk to the enterprise
  107. what are the Agile testing principles?
    • - all code is tested code (i.e. no points for delivering functional code that has not been tested)
    • - tests are written before coding or together
    • - testing is a team effort (i.e. developers and testers all write tests)
    • - Automation is the rule not an exception
  108. what are the four primary layers of testing practiced in any development project?
    • - unit testing (i.e. programmer or development testing)
    • - acceptance testing (i.e. UAT or functional testing)
    • - component testing (i.e. modular)
    • - System and performance testing (i.e. SIT)
  109. Define "unit testing"
    • - low-level or "white-box" testing
    • - develpers have access to the internals of the objects, methods, or interface being tested
  110. define "Acceptance Testing"
    - "black block" testing (i.e. module or component is evaluated only by its interaction with the user)
  111. Define "Component Testing"
    - higher level modules that fulfill some function and conform to a set of interfaces
  112. Define "System and Performance" testing
    - tests the functionality, performance, and reliability at the system level
  113. what does TDD stand for and what does it mean?
    • - "test driven development"
    • - focuses on writing the test before writing the code
  114. what are the principles of "unit testing"
    • - write the test before writing the code
    • - run the test to watch it fail
    • - this tests the test itself
    • - displays how the system will fail if the code is written incorrectly
  115. who normally writes "acceptance tests" and what is their function
    • - customers, product owner, test or QA team members
    • - the function is to test each new piece of functionality (i.e. story) in an interation
  116. what is an automated acceptance testing example?
    - FIT (framework for integrated tests)
  117. how does FIT work?
    - a scriptable framework that supports tests being written in table form
  118. what is FitNesse and how does it work
    - another open source component and is a wiki/web-based front end for creating text tables for FIT that also provides some test management capability
  119. what is the goal of "system testing"
    - to integrate components and subsystems into typical production environments and run basic funtional tests to assure the system works as a whole
  120. what is the goal of "performance testing"
    - to find, measure , and eliminate bottlenecks and to establish a performance measurement baseline for future regression testing
  121. what is the goal of "load testing"
    - to exercise the system under test by feeding it increasingly larger loads and see where the system breaks
  122. what does "XP" stand for in Agile
    - "XP" stand for Extreme Programming
  123. what are the key practices using "XP" in Agile
    • - a team of 5 to 10 programmers
    • - development happens in frequent builds or iterations, which deliver an increment of functionality
    • - requirements or defined as user stories
    • - programmers work in pairs and do their own unit testing
    • - requirements, architecture, and design emerge over the course of the project
  124. What does "Scrum" stand for
    - nothing, the name sybolizes the game rugby, which a team is interlocked to compete against their apponent
  125. what are the key practices using "Scrum" in Agile
    • - Agile "project management" method (i.e. a framework to manage Agile projects)
    • - consist of sprints or iterations fixed days no more then 30
    • - a sprint is fixed and committed to by the development team and only the development team may add in additonal stories
    • - all stories are pulled into an iterative backlog from a product backlog
    • - Scrum Master is there to mentor and leads the empowered, self-organized, and accountable team responsible for a successful delivery of that sprints committed stories
    • - daily standup meeting is one of the primary sources of communication
    • - heavy focus on "time-box" (i.e. daily standups, sprints, release planning, demo, and retrospective)
    • - would like to release incremental market releases every 90 days (i.e. typically 6 sprints per release)
  126. What criteria to good stories follow?
    • - stories are written in the natural language os the customer and development team (I.e. Understandable by both parties)
    • - stories are short and they are meant as a conversation starter
    • - the story must add value to the user and the story should describe things the user cares about
    • - typically written on a 3x5 card
  127. What is a non-functional requirement
    is a requirement that specifies criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviors.
  128. What is functional requirement
    defines a function of a software system or its component. A function is described as a set of inputs, the behavior, and outputs
  129. What is a use case
    describes "who" can do "what" with the system in question.
  130. what does FIT stand for within Agile testing
    - Framework for Integrated Testing

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