Biology & Behavior Ch.2.txt

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Biology & Behavior Ch.2.txt
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Bilogy & Behavior Ch.2
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  1. History of Mind
    Plato correctly placed mind in the brain. However, his student Aristotle believed that mind was in the heart.Today we believe mind and brain are faces of the same coin. Everything that is psychological is simultaneously biological.
  2. Phrenology
    In 1800, Franz Gall suggested that bumps of the skull represented mental abilities. Though incorrect, his theory did successfully establish that different mental abilities were modular.
  3. Neuron
    Specialized cells that conducts impulses through the nervous system - contains three major parts:
  4. Cell body
    Contains nucleus.Carries out metabolic functions of the neuron
  5. Dendrites
    Branchlike extensions of the cell body.Receive and send messages from other neurons
  6. Axon
    Slender, tail-like extension of the neuron.Transmits signal to dendrites or cell body of other neurons, to muscles, glands, and other body parts
  7. Myelin Shealth
    Covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
  8. Terminal branches of axon
    form junctions with other cells
  9. Glial cells
    Specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord /Hold neurons together/Removes waste (dead neurons) and does clean-up tasks/Performs manufacturing and nourishing activities
  10. Synapse
    Junction where axon terminal of a sending neuron communicates with a receiving neuron across the synaptic cleft
  11. Resting potential
    The slight negative electrical potential of the neuron
  12. Action potential
    Sudden reversal of the resting potential, which initiates the firing of the neuron
  13. Threshold
    Level of depolarization necessary to trigger an action potential/Threshold is all-or-none, like a mousetrap
  14. Synapse
    a junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft
  15. Action Potential
    A neural impulse. A brief electrical charge that travels down an axon and is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon�s membrane.
  16. Depolarization:
    Occurs when positive ions (usually sodium or calcium) enter the neuron, making it more prone to firing an action potential.
  17. Hyperpolarization:
    Occurs when positive ions (usually potassium) leave the neuron, making it less prone to firing an action potential.
  18. Refractory Period:
    After a neuron fires an action potential it pauses for a short period to recharge itself to fire again. The neuron cannot fire an action potential during this period.
  19. Sodium-Potassium Pumps:
    Pump positive ions out from the inside of the neuron, making them ready for another action potential.
  20. All-or-None Response:
    When the depolarizing current exceeds the threshold, a neuron will fire. If the depolarizing current fails to exceed the threshold, a neuron will not fire.
  21. Whether threshold is barely reached or far exceeded,
    the action potential generated is identical
  22. Intensity of an action potential
    remains the same throughout the length of the axon
  23. Neurotransmitters
    Chemical substances released into the synaptic cleft from the axon terminal of a sending neuron/Cross a synapse, /Bind to appropriate receptor sites on dendrites or cell body of a receiving neuron/Influence a cell to either fire or not fire
  24. Receptors
    Protein molecules on surface of dendrites and cell bodies/Have distinctive shapes /Only interact with specific neurotransmitters
  25. Reuptake
    Neurotransmitters taken from the synaptic cleft back into the axon terminal for later use/Terminates the excitatory or inhibitory effect on the receiving neuron
  26. Lock & Key Mechanism
    Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors of the receiving neuron in a key-lock mechanism
  27. Agonists
    Agonist molecule excites similar to neurotransmitters it mimics its effect on the the receiving neuron
  28. Agonist block neurotransmitter
    inhibits. to occupy its receptor site and block its action but not similar enough to stimulate the receptor
  29. Acetylcholine (Ach)
    Causes excitatory effect on skeletal muscle fibers causing them to contract so the body can move
  30. Norepinephrine
    Affects eating, alertness, and sleep
  31. Epinephrine
    Affects metabolism of glucose and causes stored energy to be released during exercise
  32. Serotonin
    Important role in regulating mood, sleep, impulsivity, aggression, and appetite /Primary target of most anti-depressants
  33. Glutamate
    Primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain
  34. GABA
    Primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain
  35. Endorphins
    Chemicals produced naturally by the brain that reduce pain and the stress of vigorous exercise/Positively affect mood/Literally means �endogenous morphine�/This means we discovered the drug before we understood how it worked
  36. Nervous System:
    All the body�s nerve cells�an elaborate interwoven network allowing for quick communication.
  37. Central Nervous System (CNS):
    the brain and spinal cord.
  38. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):
    the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body
  39. Peripheral Nerous System
    Somatic & Autonomic
  40. Somatic Nervous System
    All sensory nerves /Transmits sense receptor information (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin) to the central nervous system/All motor nerves�voluntary movements/Relays CNS messages to the skeletal muscles of the body
  41. Autonomic Nervous System
    Transmits messages from the brain to the rest of the body/Not under conscious control/Sweating, heartbeat, breathing rate, adrenaline release, etc/Things that are important but that you don�t �decide� to do
  42. Autonomic 2 parts
    Sympathetic & Parasympathetic
  43. Sympathetic Nervous System
    �Fight/Flight�/Mobilizes body during stress and emergencies/Prepares body for action
  44. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    �Rest and digest�/Returns body to normal state after an emergency
  45. Hindbrain
    Pons/ Medulla/ Cerebellum
  46. Pons
    Relays messages between cerebellum and motor cortex/Influences sleep and dreaming
  47. Medulla
    Control center for heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, swallowing, and coughing/Reticular Formation/Arousal system and activates cerebral cortex
  48. Cerebellum
    Coordinates skilled movement/Regulates muscle tone and posture/Role in motor learning and probably cognition
  49. Brain Stem
    Medulla & Reticular Formation & Thalamus
  50. The Medulla
    is the base of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing.
  51. Reticular Formation
    is a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
  52. Thalamus
    is the brain�s sensory switchboard, located on top of the brainstem. It directs messages to the sensory areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla
  53. Cerebellum
    the "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem. it helpd coordinate voluntary movements and balance
  54. Forebrain
    Thalamus, Limbic System, Corpus callosum
  55. Thalamus
    Relay station between cerebral cortex and lower brain centers
  56. Limbic System
    Group of structures involved in emotional expression, memory, and motivation
  57. Corpus callosum
    Band of nerve fibers that connects the two sides of the brain
  58. Limbic System
    is a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebrum, associated with emotions such as fear, aggression and drives for food and sex. It includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus
  59. Thalamus Funtion
    Acts as relay station for information in and out of forebrain
  60. Hypothalamus Function
    Controls hunger, thirst, and body temperature; involved in emotions; helps control the endocrine system
  61. Amygdala Function
    A role in emotional responses to unpleasant or punishing stimuli
  62. Hippocampus Function
    Memory storage, navigation, and response to new or unexpected stimuli
  63. Endocrine System
    A system of ductless glands that manufacture hormones and secrete them into the blood stream to affect other parts of the body
  64. Hormone
    Chemical made and secreted in one part and affects another part of the body.
  65. Pituitary gland � �the master gland�
    Controls growth hormone and activates other endocrine glands
  66. Pineal gland
    Secretes hormone that controls sleep/wakefulness cycle
  67. Cerebrum Componets
    Cerebral hemispheres & Corpus callosum & Cerebral cortex
  68. Cerebral hemispheres
    The right and left halves of the cerebrum; they control movement and feeling on the opposite side of the body
  69. Corpus callosum
    The thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and makes possible the transfer of information and synchronizes activity between the hemispheres
  70. Cerebral cortex
    The gray, convoluted covering of the cerebral hemispheres that is responsible for the higher mental processes of language, memory, and thinking.
  71. Association areas
    Areas of the cerebral cortex that house memories and are involved in thought, perception, and language
  72. Cerebral Hemispheres
    Laterlization, Left hemisphere, & right hemisphere
  73. Lateralization
    Functional specialization of one of the cerebral hemispheres
  74. Left hemisphere
    Controls: Right side of body /Most functions of speech and written language/Coordinates complex movements
  75. Right hemisphere
    Controls left side of body/Specialized for:Visual-spatial perception/Interpreting nonverbal behavior/Right hemisphere damage can cause:/Attentional deficits/Inability to view objects in the left visual field
  76. Right Brain
    controls left side of the body/music processing /emotional thinking /perceiving spatial relations
  77. Left Brain
    Control right side of boy /spoken and written language /numerical skills /reasoning (logic)
  78. The Split Brain Operation
    Rare surgical treatment for severe epilepsy/Corpus callosum is cut, separating the two hemispheres/Each half has separate sensations, thoughts, and perceptions/When picture is shown to the right eye:/Left hemisphere verbally reports what is seen/When picture is shown to the left eye:/Right hemisphere remembers what is seen but can not verbally report it/Can pick out the shown item by touch with left hand/Increased knowledge about lateralization
  79. Frontal Lobes
    Extend from front of brain to skull�s top center/Largest of brain lobes/Contain motor cortex, Broca�s area, & frontal association areas
  80. Motor cortex
    Rear of frontal lobes/Controls voluntary body movement/Participates in learning and cognitive events
  81. Broca�s area
    Control�s production of speech sounds
  82. Broca�s aphasia
    Physical inability to create speech or speech sounds/Caused by damage to Broca�s area
  83. Frontal association areas
    Thinking, motivation, planning, impulse control, emotional responses
  84. Parietal Lobes
    Somatosensory cortex/Body awareness and spatial orientation/Somatosensory cortex /Touch, pressure, temperature, and pain register
  85. Somatosensory cortex
    Front of parietal lobes/Touch, pressure, temperature, and pain register�Wired� to opposite sides of body Affected by experience
  86. Occipital Lobes
    The lobes that are involved in the reception and interpretation of visual information; they contain the primary visual cortex
  87. Primary visual cortex
    The area at the rear of the occipital lobes where vision registers in the cerebral cortex
  88. Temporal Lobes
    Involved in the reception and interpretation of auditory information
  89. The primary auditory cortex
    The part of each temporal lobe where hearing registers in the cerebral cortex
  90. Wernicke�s area
    Language area of the left temporal cortex/Comprehends spoken word, formulates coherent speech, and written language
  91. Wernicke�s aphasia
    Asphasia caused by damage to Wernicke�s area. /Speech is fluent and clearly articulated but doesn�t make sense to listeners
  92. Temporal association areas
    Areas that interpret auditory stimuli
  93. Neurogenesis and Synaptogenesis
    Dendrites and axons grow as synapses develop/Pruning/The process through which the developing brain eliminates unnecessary or redundant synapses
  94. Myelination
    Development of myelin sheaths around axons
  95. Hemispheric Specialization
    Some occurs early in life/Spatial perception occurs around age 8 or so
  96. Plasticity
    Brain�s ability to reorganize or reshape in response to internal and external sources/Brain gains and loses synapses throughout life
  97. Women have equal amounts of gray and white matter
    May explain superior ability to perceive emotions
  98. Men have more white matter than gray, yet less white matter in left hemisphere
    May explain superior ability in spatial tasks
  99. Navigational information processed in different parts of brain
    Women use right parietal cortex and right frontal cortex/Men use left hippocampus/Both use different areas to process location of sound/More studies are needed to look for links between brain differences and actual behaviors.
  100. EEG � electroencephalogram
    Records electrical brain wave activity
  101. CT Scan � computerized axial tomography
    Cross-sectional x-ray images
  102. MRI � Magnetic resonance imagery
    High resolution images w/o x-rays
  103. Functional MRI
    Reveals precise brain structure and activity
  104. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
    uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue.
  105. fMRI (bottom right)
    determines active brain regions by measuring heightened blood flow. Here, subject is lying about what cards they have
  106. PET Scan � positron emission tomography
    Reveals brain activity based on blood flow, oxygen use, and glucose consumption
  107. SQUID � superconducting quantum interference device
    Measures magnetic changes in brain when neurons fire
  108. MEG � magnetoencephalography
    Measure magnetic changes showing neural activity within the brain as rapidly as it occurs
  109. Dominant-recessive pattern
    one dominant gene or two recessive genes required for a trait to be expressed
  110. Multifactorial inheritance
    inheritance pattern in which a trait is influenced by both genes and environmental factors
  111. Polygenic inheritance
    many genes influence a particular characteristic like skin color
  112. Sex linked inheritance
    involves genes on the X and Y chromosomes e.g., male or female body type or red-green color blindness
  113. Behavioral genetics
    field of research that uses twin and adoption studies to investigate the relative effects of heredity and environment on behavior

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