A&P Chapter 5 - Skin

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tiffanydawnn
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35339
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A&P Chapter 5 - Skin
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2010-09-17 09:45:55
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Chapter Skin
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A&P Chapter 5 - Skin
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  1. integumentary system
    consists of skin, hair, nails and associated glands
  2. dermatology
    study of the skin
  3. skin
    • functions:
    • --regulates body temp
    • --produces vitamin D - bone growth (sunlight required for vitamin D synthesis)
    • --blood reserve
    • --excretion (perspiration)
    • --immunity
    • --protection
    • --receptors for touch, pain, temp
    • covers 20 sq. feet
    • 3 layers: epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous
    • 3 glands: sudoriferous, sebaceous, ceruminous
  4. sudoriferous gland
    • sweat gland
    • regulates temperature
    • 2 types: eccrine, apocrine
  5. eccrine gland
    • sudoriferous gland
    • secretes on forehead, hands, feet
    • produces watery sweat under stress
  6. apocrine gland
    • sudoriferous gland
    • secretes in armpits, groin
    • produces odorus sweat
  7. sebaceous gland
    • produces sebum
    • sebum lubricates skin, kills bacteria
  8. ceruminous gland
    • modified sweat gland
    • produces wax
    • only found in ear
  9. epidermis
    • outer layer of skin
    • made of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
    • 4 types of cells: keratinocytes, melanocytes, merkel cells, langerhan cells
    • 4 or 5 layers (bottom to top): stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum luicdem, stratum corneum
  10. keratinocytes
    cells that make keratin
  11. melanocytes
    cells that produce melanin (pigment)
  12. merkel cells
    touch receptor cells
  13. langerhan cells
    cells that produce chemicals to boost the immune system
  14. stratum basale
    • bottom layer of epidermis
    • made of simple cuboidal
    • all cells living
    • area of constant mitosis
    • contains keratinocytes, melanocytes, merkel cells
  15. stratum spinosum layer
    • fourth layer of epidermis
    • made of 10 layers of squamous and cuboidal cells
    • contains anchoring junctions that allow for stretching
    • mostly melanocytes, langerhan cells
  16. stratum granulosum layer
    • middle layer of epidermis
    • made of 5 layers of living squamous cells
    • keratin is first produced here
    • contains keratinocytes
  17. stratum lucidem layer
    • second layer of epidermis
    • made of several layers of flat dead cells
    • layer not present in thin skin
  18. stratum corneum
    • top layer of epidermis
    • made of 30 layers of flat, dead keratinized cells
  19. dermis
    • middle layer of skin
    • made of adipose and areolar tissues
    • vascular
    • contains base structures of hair, oil, sweat glands
    • 2 layers: papillary, reticular
  20. papillary layer
    • top layer of the dermis
    • contains the dermal papilla
  21. dermal papilla
    ridges that produce fingerprints and footprints
  22. reticular layer
    • bottom layer of the dermis
    • attaches dermis to subcutaneous
    • composed of dense regular, adipose, elastic fiber
  23. subcutaneous
    • bottom layer of skin
    • aka hypodermis or superficial fascia
    • adipose
    • attaches skin to underlying structures
    • contains pacinian corpuscles
  24. pacinian corpuscles
    pressure receptors
  25. skin color
    • determined by the amount of melanin (genetic)
    • carotene: yellow pigment
    • hemoglobin: pink pigment
  26. vitiligo
    isolated patches of no pigment
  27. albino
    total absence of pigment
  28. freckles
    isolated tiny melanin patches
  29. hair (pilli)
    • covers entire body except lips, nipples, palms, soles, parts of external genitals
    • made of dead, keratinized cells
    • 3 layers: cuticle, cortex, medulla
    • attached to hair follicle
    • surrounded by arrector pilli muscle
  30. cuticle
    outer keratinized layer of hair
  31. cortex
    • middle layer of hair
    • dark hair: contains melanin
    • blond/gray hair: contains air
  32. medulla
    • inner layer of hair
    • filled with air
  33. hair follicle
    hair attachment location
  34. bulb
    • surrounds the hair follicle
    • contains blood and nerves
  35. arrector pilli muscle
    • surrounds each hair
    • allows hair to stand on end
  36. root hair plexus
    makes hair sensitive to touch
  37. nails
    keratinized extensions of the epidermis found on fingers and toes

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