Landforms Exam 1

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cgianell
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35353
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Landforms Exam 1
Updated:
2010-09-17 17:27:38
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UofM Landforms Ch1 CH11 Ch12
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Ch1, CH11, Ch12(part1)
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  1. Name and describe the orders of relief
    • Crustal Orders of Relief
    • 1st Order- continents, ocean basins
    • 2nd Order- mountain ranges, oceanic trenches, oceanic range
    • 3rd Order- local values, streams, rivers, peaks (1 thing in a range, small features)
  2. hypsographic curve
    From Greek word hypsos meaning "height"

    It shows the distribution of Earth's surfaces by area and elevation in relation to sea level.
  3. craton
    Granitic core

    Heartland region o the continental crust

    Have generally been eroded to a low elevation and relief
  4. continental shield
    old, low elevation heartland regions of continental crust; various cratons and ancient mountains exposed at surface
  5. terranes
    A migrating piece of Earth's crust, dragged about by processes of mantle convection and plate tectonics.

    Displaced terranes are distinct in their history, composition, and structure from the continents that accept them
  6. stress
    See pg 367 Example 12.7
  7. strain
    See pg 367 Example 12.7

    how rocks respond to stress
  8. tension
    stretching
  9. compression
    shortening
  10. shear
    twisting or tearing
  11. ductile
    • bending
    • (ex. hot plastic)
  12. brittle
    • breaking
    • (ex. silly putty)

    Usually takes a lot of strain to create brittle
  13. folding
    The bending and deformation of beds of rock strata subjected to compressional forces
  14. dome
    small, individual, fold-like structure

    fold pulls up in the center- opposite of a basin
  15. basin
    small, individual, fold-like structure

    • sinks in the center
    • -opposite of a dome
  16. anticline
    up-folded rock strata, in which layers slope downward from the axis of the fold, or central ridge
  17. syncline
    A trough in folded strata, with beds that slope toward the axis of the downfold
  18. Geography
    • Geo -Earth
    • Graphein - To write

    A method of study- holistic (whole thing)-eclectic (details)
  19. physical geography
    The spatial analysis of all the physical elements and process that make up the environment: energy, air, water, weather, climate, landforms, soil, animals, plants, microorganisms, and Earth itself
  20. 5 Spatial Themes of Geography
    • Location
    • Region
    • Human-Earth Relationships
    • Movement
    • Place
  21. scientific method
    • 1. observation
    • 2. inductive reasoning
    • 3. hypothesis
    • 4. predictions/ experiment
    • 5. general theory/ governing laws/ theory formulations
    • pg 8
  22. Earth Systems
    Geographers use Earth Systems Science
  23. Geographers use spatial analysis.
    What is it?
    Where something is on Earth and what it is.

    Most essential part of geography
  24. Geography is the science that studies the relationship among:
    • -natural systems
    • -geographic areas
    • -society
    • -cultural activities
    • and the interdependence of all of these over space
  25. Physical Geography is ...
    the spatial analysis of all the physical elements and processes that make up the environment
  26. Landforms
    Landforms are distinct physical features on the Earth's surface; e.g. hills, rivers, glaciers

    -emphasis in this class in on the origin, properties of, and spatial distribution of landforms on Earth
  27. Geomorphology
    - it is a subdiscipline of physical geography and geology
  28. Systems Theory
  29. Open Systems
    • energy and matter going in one place and going out another
    • ex. car (input/ output)
  30. Closed Systems
    theoretical, self contained systems - can run forever by themselves
  31. System Feedback
  32. lithos
    rock/stone
  33. system equilibrium
  34. Systems- Earth's 4 Spheres
    • Atmosphere
    • Hydrosphere
    • Lithosphere
    • Biosphere
  35. Atmosphere
  36. Hydrosphere
  37. Lithosphere
  38. Biosphere
  39. Geoidal bulge
    due to Earth's spin
  40. parallel
    <-->
  41. meridian
    N & S
  42. latitude
    fatitude
  43. longitude
  44. great circles
  45. prime meridian
  46. standard time
  47. latitudinal geographic zone
  48. great circles & small circles
  49. map
    a generalized view of an area, as seen from above and reduced in size
  50. scale
    a ratio of map units to ground units
  51. projection
    process of transforming spherical Earth to a flap map
  52. Types of Map Projections
    • cylindrical
    • planar
    • conic
    • oval
  53. active remote sensing
    ex. Satellite receives/ sends energy
  54. passive remote sensing
    ex. satellite with digital camera
  55. Remote Sensing
    satellite technology, make observations of through active and passive
  56. GIS
    • Geographic Information Systems
    • GIS Systems combine spatial and attribute data
  57. Maps can contain multiple data layers such as:
    • Physical features
    • Cultural features
  58. GIS Midel System
    Layers can be added to create composite overlay

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