Musculoskeletal System

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Musculoskeletal System
2010-09-18 20:32:10
muscl system

med terms
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  1. ankyl/o
    coorked or stiff
  2. arthr/o, articul/o
  3. brachi/o
  4. cervic/o
  5. chondro/o
    cartilage (gristle)
  6. cost/o
  7. crani/o
  8. dactylo/o
    digit (finger or toe)
  9. fasci/o
    fascia (a band)
  10. femor/o
  11. fibr/o
  12. kyph/o
  13. lei/o
  14. lord/o
  15. lumb/o
    loin (lower back)
  16. my/o, myos/o, muscul/o
  17. myel/o
    bone marrow or spinal cord
  18. oste/o
  19. patell/o
    knee cap
  20. pelv/i
    pelvis (basin) or hip bone
  21. radi/o
  22. rhabd/o
    rod-shaped or striated (skeletal)
  23. sarc/o
  24. scoli/o
  25. spondyl/o, vertebr/o
  26. stern/o
    sternum (breastbone)
  27. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    tendon (to stretch)
  28. thorac/o
  29. ton/o
    tone or tension
  30. uln/o
  31. appendicular skeleton
    bones ofthe shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities
  32. axial skeleton
    bones of the skull, vertebral colum, chest and hyoid bone (u-shaped bone at the base of the tongue)
  33. bone
    specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes (bone cells); forms the skeleton
  34. compact bone
    tightly solid bone tissue that forms the exterior of bones
  35. spongy/ cancellousbone
    mesh-like bone tissue foudn in the interior of bones, and surrounding the medullary cavity
  36. long bones
    bones of the arms and legs
  37. short bones
    bones of the wrist and ankles
  38. flat bones
    bones of the ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis and skull
  39. irregular bones
    bones of the vertebrae and face
  40. sesamoid bones
    round bones found near joints ex. the patella
  41. epiphysis
    wide ends of a long bone
  42. diaphysis
    shaft of a long bone
  43. metaphysis
    growth zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis during development of a long bone
  44. endosteum
    membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
  45. medullary cavity
    cavity within the shaft of the long bones ;filled with bone marrow
  46. bone marrow
    soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones
  47. red bone marrow
    functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets; found in the cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones in adults
  48. yellow bone marrow
    gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in the formation fo blood cells
  49. periosteum
    a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
  50. articular cartilage
    a gristle-like substance on bones where they articulate
  51. articulation
    a joint; the point where two bones come together
  52. bursa
    a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
  53. disk or disc
    a flat, plate-like structure composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue between vertebrae that reduces friction
  54. nucleus pulposus
    the soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intervertebral disk
  55. ligament
    a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
  56. synovial membrane
    membrane lining the capsule of a joint
  57. synovial fluid
    joint-lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
  58. muscle
    tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movements of an organ or part of the body
  59. striated/skeletal muscle
    voluntary muscle attached to the skeleton
  60. smooth muscle
    involuntary muscle found in internal organs
  61. cardiac muscle
    muscle of the heart
  62. origin of a muscle
    muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts
  63. insertion of a muscle
    muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
  64. tendon
    a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
  65. fascia
    a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
  66. anatomic or anatomical position
    person is standing upright, facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightlly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing forward.
  67. body planes
    reference plances for indicating the location or direction of body parts
  68. coronal/frontal plane
    vertical division of the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions
  69. sagittal plane
    vertical division of the body into right and left portions
  70. transverse plane
    horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
  71. anterior/ventral
    front of the body
  72. posterior/dorsal
    back of the body
  73. anterior-posterior (AP)
    from front to back, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
  74. posterior-anterior(PA)
    from back to front, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
  75. superior/cephalic
    situated above another structure, toward the head
  76. inferior/caudal
    situated below another structure, away from the head
  77. proximal
    toward the beginning or origin of a structure
  78. distal
    away from the beginning or origin of a structure
  79. medial
    toward the middle
  80. lateral
    toward the side
  81. axis
    the imaginary line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
  82. erect
    normal standing position
  83. decubitus
    lying down
  84. prone
    lying face down and flat
  85. recumbent
    lying down
  86. supine
    horizontal recumbent lying flat on the back
  87. flexion
    bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
  88. extension
    straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
  89. abduction
    movement away from the body
  90. adduction
    movement toward the body
  91. rotation
    circular movement around the axis
  92. eversion
    turning outward
  93. inversion
    turning inward
  94. supination
    turning of the palmar surface (palm of hand) or plantar surface (sole of foot) upward or forward
  95. pronation
    turning of the palmar surface or plantar surface downward or backward
  96. dorsiflexion
    bending of the foot or the toes upward
  97. plantar flexion
    bendinf of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
  98. range of motion
    total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements. measured in degrees
  99. goniometer
    intrument used to measure joint angles
  100. arthralgia
    joint pain
  101. atrophy
    shrinking of muscle size
  102. crepitation/crepitus
    grating sound sometimes made by the movement of a joint or broken bones
  103. exostosis
    a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
  104. flaccid
    flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
  105. hypertrophy
    increase in the size of tissue, such as muscle
  106. hypotonia
    reduced muscle tone or tension
  107. myalgia
    muscle pain
  108. rigor/rigidity
    stiffness; stiff muscle
  109. spastic
    uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles, causing stiff and awkward movements
  110. tetany
    tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
  111. tremor
    shaking; rhythmic muscular movement
  112. ankylosis
    stiff joint condition
  113. arthritis
    infl. of the joints characterized by pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limitation of motion.
  114. osteoarthritis/ degenerative arthritis/degenerative joint disease
    most common form of arthritis, especially affecting the weight-bearing joints, characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage
  115. rheumatoid arthritis
    most crippling form of arthritis; characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation, most often affecting joints and synovial membranes and causing ankylosis and deformity
  116. gouty arthritis
    acute attacks of arthritis, usually in a single joints caused by hyperuricemia
  117. bony necrosis/sequestrum
    bone tissue that has died from loss of blood suppy, such as can occur after a fracture
  118. bunion
    swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
  119. bursitis
    inflammation of a bursa
  120. chondromalacia
    softening of cartilage
  121. epiphysitis
    inflammation of the epiphyseal regions of the long bone
  122. fracture
    broken or cracked bone
  123. closed fracture
    broken bone with no open wound
  124. open fracture
    compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound
  125. simple fracture
    nondisplaced fracture with one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair.
  126. complex fracture
    displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
  127. fracture line
    the line of the break in a broken bone
  128. communuted fracture
    broken in many small pieces
  129. greenstick fracture
    bending and incomplete break of a bone; most often seen in children
  130. herniated disk
    protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
  131. myeloma
    bone marrow tumor
  132. myositis
    inflammation of muscle
  133. myoma
    muscle tumor
  134. leiomyoma
    smooth muscle tumor
  135. leiomyosarcoma
    malignant smooth muscle tumor
  136. rhabdomyoma
    skeletal muscle tumor
  137. rhabdomyosarcoma
    malignant skeletal muscle tumor
  138. muscular dystrophy
    a category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles; duchenne type is most commom
  139. osteoma
    bone tumor
  140. osteosarcoma
    type of malignant bone tumor
  141. osteomalacia
    disease marked by softening of the bone caused by the calcium and vitamin D deficiency
  142. rickets
    osteomalacia in children; causes bone deformity
  143. osteomyelitis
    infection of bone marrow, causing inflammation
  144. osteoporosis
    condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become brittle and to fracture more easily
  145. spinal curvatures
    curvatures of the spine (backbone) or spinal column
  146. kyphosis
    abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humped-back condition)
  147. lordosis
    abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)
  148. scoliosis
    abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
  149. spondylolisthesis
    forward slipping of lumbar vertebra
  150. spondylosis
    stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae caused by joint degeneration
  151. sprain
    injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but w/out joint dislocation or fracture
  152. subluxation
    partial dislocation
  153. tendinitis or tendonitis
    inflammation of a tendon
  154. electromyogram (EMG)
    a neurodiagnostic, graphic record of the electrical activity of muscle both at rest and during contraction; used to diagnose neuromusculoskeletal disorders; usually performed by a neurologist
  155. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
    a nonionizing (no x-ray) imaging technique using magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures; useful in orthopedic studies to detect joint, tendon, and vertebral disk disorders
  156. radionuclide organ imaging/bone scan
    a nuclear scan of bone tissue to detect a tumor; malignancy, etc
  157. radiography
    an imaging modality using x-rays; commonly used in orthopedics to visualize the extremities, ribs, back, shoulders, and joints
  158. arthrogram
    a radiograph of a joint taken after the injection of a contrast medium
  159. computed tomography/computed axial tomography (CAT)
    a specialized x-ray procedure producing a series of crosssectional images that are processed by a computer into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional image
  160. sonography
    ultrasound imaging; a nonionizing technique that is useful in orthopedics to visualize muscles, ligaments, displacements, and dislocations or to guide the therapeutic intervention, such as that perfomed during arthroscopy
  161. amputation
    partial or complete removal of a limb(AKA-above knee amputation, BKA-below knee amputation)
  162. arthrocentesis
    puncture of aspriation of a joint
  163. arthodesis
    binding or fusing of joint surfaces
  164. arthroplasty
    repair or reconstruciton of a joint
  165. arhtroscopy
    procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within
  166. bone grafting
    transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect
  167. bursectomy
    removal of a bursa
  168. myoplasty
    repair of muscle
  169. open reduciton, internal fixation of a fracture
    internal surgical repair of a fracture by bringing bones back into alignment and fixing them in place with devices such as plates, screws, and pins
  170. osteoplasty
    reapair of a bone
  171. osteotomy
    incision into bone
  172. spondylosyndesis
    spinal fusion
  173. tenotomy
    division of a tendon by incision to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle
  174. prosthesis
    an artificial replacement for a missing body part or a device used to improve a body function, such as an artificial limb, hip or joint
  175. analgesic
    a drug that relieves pain
  176. narcotic
    a potent analgesic with addictive properties
  177. antiinflammatory
    a drug that reduces inflammation
  178. antipyretic
    a drug that relieves fever
  179. nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug
    a group of drugs with analgesic, antiinflammatory, and antipyretic properties commonly used to treat arthritis
  180. A
  181. AKA
    above knee amputation
  182. BKA
    below knee amputation
  183. AP
    anterior posterior
  184. CAT
    computed axial tomography
  185. CT
    computed tomography
  186. DJD
    degenerative joint disease
  187. EMG
  188. Fx
  189. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  190. NSAID
    nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug
  191. OA
  192. ORIF
    open reduction, internal fixation
  193. P
  194. PA
    posterior anterior
  195. PT
    physical therapy
  196. RA
    rheumatoid arthritis
  197. ROM
    range of motion
  198. Tx