Test 1

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megxcorkie
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35420
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Test 1
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2010-09-18 13:40:21
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Biology
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Chapters 1-5 and 9
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  1. The study of ____________________ is interdisciplinary because solutions require many different approaches to solve a problem
    biological systems
  2. Living systems have seven characteristics in common
    they are composed of one or more cells; are complex and highly ordered; can respond to stimuli; can grow, reproduce, and transmit genetic information to their offsprings; need energy to accomplish work; can maintain relatively constant internal conditions (homeostasis); and are capable of evolutionary adaptation to the environment
  3. The hierarchical organization of living systems
    atoms; molecule; macromolecule; organelle; cell; tissue; organ; organ system; organism; population; species; community; ecosystem; biosphere
  4. ____________ is concerned with developing an increasingly accurate description of nature through observation and experimentation
    science
  5. ___________ applies general principles to predict specific results
    deductive reasoning
  6. _____________ uses specific observations to construct general specific principles
    inductive reasoning
  7. A _____________ is constructed based on observation, and it must generate experimentally testable predictions; rejected if their predictions cannot be verified by observation or experiment
    hypothesis
  8. ______________ involve a test in which a variable is manipulated, and a control in which the variable is not manipulated
    experiments
  9. ______________ attempts to understand a complex system by breaking it down into its component parts; limited because parts may act differently when isolated from the larger system
    reductionism
  10. A ________ provides a way of organizing our thinking about a problem; may also suggest experimental approaches
    model
  11. a proposed explanation for some natural phenomenon; a body of concepts that explains facts in an area of study
    theory
  12. extends the boundaries of what we know
    basic research
  13. seeks to use scientific findings in practical areas such as agriculture, medicine, and industry
    applied research
  14. shows how a scientist develops a hypothesis and sets forth evidence, as well as how a scientific theory grows and gains acceptance
    Darwin's theory of evolution
  15. During the voyage of the H.M.S Beagle, _________ had an opportunity to observe worldwide patterns of diversity
    Darwin
  16. Darwin proposed ____________ as a mechanism for evolution
    natural selection
  17. Traits of offspring can be changed by
    artificial selection
  18. the basic unit of life and is the foundation for understanding growth and reproduction in all organisms
    cell
  19. encoded in genes found in the DNA molecule, is passed on from one generation to the next; the molecular basis of inheritance explains the continuity of life
    Hereditary information
  20. The ___________ of macromolecules and their complexes is dictated by and dependent on their ________. Similarity of ___________________ from one life form to another may indicate an evolutionary relationship
    function; structure; structure and function
  21. Living organisms appear to have had a common origin from which a ___________________ arose by evolutionary change; they can be grouped into three domains comprising six kingdoms based on their differences
    diversity of life
  22. The underlying similarities in _______________ and _______________ support the contention that all life evolved from a single science
    biochemistry; genetics
  23. Cells can sense and respond to environmental changes through proteins located on their ___________________. Differential expression of stored genetic information is the basis for different cell types
    cell membranes
  24. Organisms are open systems that need a constant supply of energy to maintain their stable __________________________. Living things are able to self-organize, creating levels of complexity that may exhibit emergent properties.
    nonequilibrium state
  25. All matter is composed of
    atoms
  26. Electrically neutral atoms have the same number of __________ as __________.
    protons; electrons
  27. Atoms that gain or lose electrons are called
    ions
  28. Each atom is defined by its _________________; the number of protons in the nucleus
    atomic number
  29. The sum or the mass of protons and neutrons in an atom
    Atomic mass
  30. Forms of a single element with different numbers of neutrons, and thus different atomic mass
    Isotopes
  31. Isotopes that are unstable
    Radioactive isotopes
  32. Determine the chemical behavior of atoms; the potential energy of electrons increases as distance from the nucleus increases.
    Electrons
  33. Contain discrete energy levels
    Atoms
  34. The loss of electrons from an atom
    oxidation
  35. The gain of electrons
    reduction
  36. Electrons can be transferred from one atom to another in
    coupled redox reactions
  37. Atoms tend to establish completely full outer energy levels. Elements with filled outermost orbitals are
    inert
  38. _______ elements occur naturally in the Earth's crust. ______ of these elements are found in living organisms in grater than trace amounts.
    Ninety; Twelve
  39. Compounds of carbon
    organic compounds
  40. The majority of molecules in living systems are composed of C bound to
    H, O, and N
  41. Molecules contain two or more atoms joined by
    chemical bonds
  42. Contain two or more different elements
    Compounds
  43. Ions with opposite electrical charges form
    Ionic bonds
  44. A molecule formed by a ______________ is stable because it has no net charge; may be single, double, or triple, depending on the number of pairs of electrons shared
    covalent bond
  45. ________ rule is satisfied, at it has no unpaired electrons
    Octet
  46. Involve equal sharing of electrons between atoms
    Nonpolar covalent bonds
  47. Involve unequal sharing of electrons
    Polar covalent bonds
  48. __________ alter bonds
    chemical reactions
  49. Weak interactions between a partially positive H in one molecule and partially negative O in another molecule; water's structure facilitates
    Hydrogen bonds
  50. The tendency of water molecules to adhere to one another due to hydrogen bonding. ________ of water is responsible for its surface tension
    Cohension
  51. Water molecules are_______. _______ occurs when molecules adhere to other polar molecules
    adhesion
  52. Action results from water's adhesion to the sides of narrow tubes, combined with its cohension
    Capillary
  53. Water's high specific heat helps maintain
    temperature
  54. Solid water is less dense than
    liquid water
  55. makes it a good solvent for polar substances and ions
    water's polarity
  56. Polar molecules or portions of molecules are attracted to water
    hydrophilic
  57. Molecules that are nonpolar are repelled by water
    Hydrophobic
  58. Makes nonpolar molecules clump together
    Water
  59. Will aggregate to avoid water
    Nonpolar molecules
  60. Carbon dioxide and water react reversibly to form
    carbonic acid
  61. The key buffer in the human blood is the
    carbonic acid/ bicarbonate pair
  62. The backbone of all biological molecules, can form four covalent bonds and make long chains
    Carbon
  63. Consist of carbon and hydrogen, and their bonds store considerable energy
    Hydrocarbons
  64. Small molecular entries that confer specific chemical characteristics when attached to a hydrocarbon
    Functional groups
  65. Carbon and hydrogen have similar electronegativity so C--H bonds are not
    polar
  66. Oxygen and nitrogen have greater electronegativity, leading to
    polar bonds
  67. Molecules with the same formula but different structures
    structural isomers
  68. Differ in how groups are attached
    Stereoisomers
  69. Mirror-image stereoisomers
    Enantiomers
  70. Most important biological macromolecules; long chains of monomer units
    Polymers
  71. Biological polymers are formed by elimination of _____ from two monomers. They are broken down by adding water (__________)
    water; hydrolysis
  72. The empirical formula of a carbohydrate _______.
    CH2O
  73. Used for energy storage and as structural molecules
    Carbohydrates
  74. _____________ contain three to six or more carbon atoms. Examples are glyceraldehyde (3 carbons), deoxyribose (5 carbons), and glucose (6 carbons)
    Simple sugars
  75. The general formula for six carbon sugars is ________, and many isomeric forms are possible. Living systems often have enzymes for converting isomers from one to the other
    C6H12O6
  76. ________________ account for differences in molecular properties
    functional groups
  77. ______ have the same molecular formulas but different structures
    Isomers
  78. ____________________________ include carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids
    biological macromolecules
  79. ___________________ are simple sugars
    Monosaccharides
  80. Sugar isomers have ______________ differences
    structural
  81. ______________ serve as a transport molecules in plants and provide nutrition in animals
    diaccharides
  82. Plants convert _______ into the disaccharide sucrose for transport within their bodies
    glucose
  83. _______________ provide energy storage and structural components
    polysaccharides
  84. Glucose is used to make three important polymers: ________ (in animals), and ______ and _________ (in plants)
    glycogen; starch; cellulose
  85. A related structural material found in arthropods and many fungi
    Chitin
  86. _____________________ and _________________ are polymers composed of nucleotide monomers
    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA); ribonucleic acid (RNA)
  87. Cells use __________________ for information storage and transfer.
    nucleic acids
  88. Nucletic acids are _______________________
    nucleotide polymers
  89. Nucleic acids contain four different nucleotide bases. In DNA these are _______, _______, ________, and _______. In RNA, _______ is replaced by ______.
    DNA: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine; RNA: thymine, uracil
  90. ___ carries the genetic code.
    DNA
  91. Double helix held together by specific base pairs: adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine.
    DNA
  92. The _________________ sequence constitutes the genetic code
    nucleic acid
  93. ___ is a transcript of a DNA strand.
    RNA
  94. ___ is made by copying DNA. This transcript is then used as a template to make proteins
    RNA
  95. Other nucleotides are vital components of _______________.
    energy reactions.
  96. ____________________ provides energy in cells; NAD- and FAD transport electrons in cellular processes
    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
  97. Most enzymes are __________. ________ provide defense, transport, motion, and regulation, among many other roles; polymers of amino acids
    proteins
  98. Amino acids are joined by _______________ to make ___________.
    peptide bonds; polypeptides
  99. Proteins have high levels of ______________.
    structure
  100. Protein is defined by the following hierarchy:
    primary (amino acid sequence), secondary(hydrogen bonding patterns), tertiary (three-dimensional folding), and quaternary (associations between two or more polypeptides)
  101. ______ and _______ are additional structural characteristics
    Motifs; domains
  102. Similar structural elements found in dissimilar proteins; can create folds, creases, or barrel shapes
    Motifs
  103. Functional subunits or sites within a tertiary structure
    domains
  104. The process of folding relies on___________________; assist in the folding of proteins; example: heat shock proteins
    chaperone proteins
  105. Some diseases may result in ________ folding.
    improper
  106. ________________ inactivates proteins; an unfolding of tertiary structure, which usually destroys function
    Denaturation
  107. Some denatured proteins may recover function when conditioning are returned to normal. This implies that ____________________ strongly influences ____________________.
    primary structure; tertiary structure
  108. __________________ refers to separation of quaternary subunits with no changes to their tertiary structure.
    Disassociation
  109. Insoluble in water because they have a high proportion of nonpolar C--H bonds
    Lipids
  110. ____ consist of complex polymers of fatty acids attached to glyceral; excellent energy-storage molecules
    Fats
  111. Lipids exist as ______________, three fatty acids connected to a glycerol molecule.
    triglycerides
  112. Contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms
    Saturated fatty acids
  113. Contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms
    Unsaturated fatty acids
  114. Excess carbohydrate is converted to fat for
    storage
  115. _____________ form membranes; contain two fatty acids and one phosphate attached to glycerol
    phospholipids
  116. In __________________________, the phosphate heads are hydrophilic and cluster on the two faces of the membrane, and the hydrophobic tails are in the center
    phospholipid-bilayer membranes
  117. The unifying foundation of cell biology
    Cell theory
  118. All organisms are composed of one or more _____. They arise only by division of preexisting _____.
    Cells
  119. __________ is constrained by the diffusion distance. As it increases, diffusion becomes inefficient
    cell size
  120. ________________ allow visualization of cells and components
    Microscopes
  121. ______________ gives better resolution than is possible with the naked eye. Staining with chemicals enhances contrast of structures
    Magnification
  122. ____ exhibit basic structural structure
    All cells
  123. All cells have centrally located ___, a semifluid cytoplasm, and an ___________________________________.
    DNA; enclosing plasma membrane
  124. _____________ cells have relatively simple organization; contain DNA and ribosomes, but they lack a nucleus, an internal membrane system, and membrane-bounded organelles. A rigid cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane.
    Prokaryotic cells
  125. ____________________ consist of peptidoglycan.
    Bacterial cell walls
  126. Composed of carbohydrate cross-linked with short peptides
    Peptidoglycan
  127. ___________ lack peptidoglycan
    Archaea
  128. Do not contain peptidoglycan, and they have unique plasma membranes
    Archaeal cell walls
  129. Some prokaryotes move by means of
    rotating flagella
  130. Rotate because of proton transfer across the plasma membrane
    Prokaryotic flagella
  131. Cells that have a membrane-bounded nucleus, an endomembrane system, and many different organelles
    Eukaryotic
  132. Acts as the information center; surrounded by an envelope of two phospholipid bilayers; the outer layer is contiguous with the ER
    The nucleus
  133. A region of the nucleoplasm where rRNA is transcribed and ribosomes are assembled
    The nucleolus
  134. In most _______________, DNA is organized into a single circular chromosome
    prokaryotes
  135. In most ________________, numerous chromosomes are present
    Eukaryotes
  136. The cell's protein synthesis machinery; translate mRNA to produce polypeptides; found in all cell types
    Ribosomes
  137. Creates channels and passages within the cytoplasm
    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
  138. A site of protein synthesis; studded with ribosomes, synthesizes and modifies proteins and manufactures membranes
    The Rough ER
  139. Has multiple roles; lacks ribosomes; it is involved in carbohydrate and lipid synthesis and detoxificaiton
    The smooth ER
  140. Sorts and packages proteins; receives vesicles from the ER, modifies and packages macromolecules, and transports them
    The golgi apparatus
  141. Contain digestive enzymes; break down macromolecules and recycle the components of old organelles
    Lysosomes
  142. A diverse category of organelles
    Microbodies
  143. Plants use __________ for storage and water balance
    vacuoles
  144. Have a double-membrane structure, contain their own DNA, and can divide independently
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts
  145. Mitochondria metabolize sugar to generate ___.
    ATP
  146. The inner membrane of mitochondria is extensively folded into layers called ______. Proteins on the surface and in the inner membrane carry out metabolism to produce ATP.
    cristae
  147. __________ use light to generate ATP and sugars
    Chloroplasts
  148. ______________ capture light energy via thylakoid membranes arranged in stacks called _________, and use it to synthesis glucose.
    Chloroplasts; grana
  149. Mitochondria and chloroplasts arose by
    endosymbiosis
  150. Proposes that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once prokaryotes engulfed by another cell
    The endosymbiont theory
  151. Consists of crisscrossed protein fibers that support the shape of the cell and anchor organelles
    Cytoskeleton
  152. Type of fiber that composes the cytoskeleton;

    long, thin polymers involved in cellular movement
    Actin filaments or microfilaments
  153. Type of fiber that composes the cytoskeleton

    hollow structures that move materials within a cell
    Microtubules
  154. Type of fiber that composes the cytoskeleton

    serve a wide variety of functions
    Intermediate filaments
  155. _____________ are microtubule-organizing centers; help assemble the nuclear division apparatus of animal cells
    Centrosomes
  156. ___________ helps move materials within cells.
    The cytoskeleton
  157. Molecular motors move vesicles along microtubules. ________ and _______ are two motor proteins.
    Kinesin; dynein
  158. _________ occurs as actin polymerization forces the cell membrane forward, while myosin pulls the cell body forward
    Cell crawling
  159. ___________ and _______ aid movement
    Flagella; cillia
  160. ___________ have a 9 + 2 structure and arise from a basal body; _________ are shorter and more numerous than flagella
    Eukaryotic flagella; cilia
  161. __________ provide protection and support; composed of cellulose fibers
    Plant cell walls
  162. The ______________________, between cell walls, holds adjacent cells together
    middle lamella
  163. ______________ secrete an extracellular matrix.
    Animal cells
  164. _________________ are the main component of extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal cells.
    Glycoproteins
  165. ____________ give cells identity.
    Surface proteins
  166. ______________ and ___ proteins on cell surfaces help distinguish self from nonself.
    Glycolipids; MHC
  167. _________________ mediate cell-to-cell adhesion.
    Cell connections
  168. Cell junctions include _____ junctions, _________ junctions, and _____________ junctions.
    tight; anchoring; communicating
  169. In animals, _________________ allow the passage of small molecules between cells.
    gap junctions
  170. In plants, _______________ penetrate the cell wall and connect cells
    plasmodesmata
  171. The _____________________________ shows proteins embedded in a fluid lipid bilayer; proteins float on or in the lipid bilayer
    fluid mosaic model
  172. _____________ are sheets of phospholipid bilayers with associated proteins.
    Membranes
  173. ______________ regions of a membrane are oriented inward and ____________ regions oriented outward.
    Hydrophobic; hydrophilic
  174. _________ consists of four component groups.
    Cellular membranes
  175. In eukaryotic cells, membranes have four components:
    a phosopholipid bilayer, transmembrane proteins (integral membrane proteins), an interior protein network, and cell-surface markers
  176. The __________________________, is composed of cytoskeletal filaments and peripheral membrane proteins, which are associated with the membrane but are not an integral part
    interior protein network
  177. Membranes contain _____________ and ___________ on the surface that act as cell identity markers
    glycoproteins; glycolipids
  178. __________________________ has provided structural evidence.
    Electron microscopy
  179. _______________________________ and _______________________________ have confirmed the structure predicted by the fluid mosaic model
    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM); scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
  180. ______________ are composed of two fatty acids and a phosphate group linked to a three-carbon glycerol molecule
    Phospholipids
  181. Phospholipids spontaneously form
    bilayers
  182. The phosphate group of a phospholipid is _______ and _____________; the fatty acids are ________ and ___________; and they orient away from the polar head of the phospholipids.
    polar and hydrophilic; nonpolar and hydrophobic
  183. The _____________ of the lipid bilayer impedes the passage of water and water-soluble substances
    nonpolar interior
  184. The phospholipid bilayer is
    fluid
  185. _____________________ of water keeps the membrane in its bilayer configuration; however _____________ and ______________ in the membrane are loosely associated and can diffuse laterally.
    Hydrogen bonding; phospholipids and unanchored proteins
  186. _________ can change; depends on the fatty acid composition of the membrane
    Membrane fluidity
  187. ________________________ tend to make the membrane more fluid because of the "kinks" of double bonds in the fatty acid and tails
    Unsaturated fats
  188. Some bacteria have enzymes that alter the fatty acids of the membrane to compensate for ____________________.
    temperature
  189. __________ and __________________________ perform key functions.
    proteins; protein complexes
  190. ______________ are integral membrane proteins that carry specific substances through the membrane
    transporters
  191. _________ often occur on the interior surface of the membrane
    enzymes
  192. __________________________ respond to external chemical messages and change conditions inside the cell;
    cell surface receptors
  193. _________________ markers on the surface allow recognition of the body's cells as "self".
    Cell identity
  194. ___________________ of the membrane proteins relate to function.
    structural features
  195. Transport can occur by ____________.
    simple diffusion
  196. _________________ is the passive movement of a substance along a chemical or electrical gradient. Biological membranes pose a barrier to hydrophilic polar molecules, while they allow hydrophobic substances to diffuse freely.
    Simple diffusion
  197. Proteins allow membrane diffusion to be _________.
    selective
  198. ________ and large ________________________ cannot cross the phospholipid bilayer.
    Ions; hydrophilic molecules
  199. _________ is the movement of water across membranes.
    Osmosis
  200. _______________ uses energy to move materials against a concentration gradient.
    Active transport
  201. Active transports are classified based on the number of _______ and _____________.
    molecules; direction of transport
  202. ____________ transport a specific molecule in one direction; __________ transport two molecules in the same direction; __________ transport two molecules in opposite directions
    uniporters; symporters; antiporters
  203. The sodium-potassium pump runs directly on _______.
    ATP
  204. ___________ transport uses ATP indirectly; occurs when the energy released by a diffusing molecule is used to transport a different molecule against its concentration gradient in the same direction.
    Coupled
  205. ____________________ is similar to coupled transport, but the two molecules move in opposite directions
    Countertransport
  206. ________________ moves large quantities of substances that cannot pass through the cell membrane
    Bulk transport
  207. Bulk material enters the cell in ___________.
    vesicles
  208. In ______________, the cell membrane surrounds material and pinches off to form a vesicle. In _____________________________, specific molecules bind to receptors on the cell membrane.
    endocytosis; receptor-mediate endocytosis
  209. Material can leave the cell by ________________.
    exocytosis
  210. In _________, material in a vesicle is discharged when the vesicle fuses with the membrane.
    exocytosis

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