Organic Chem 1

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hipdivachic
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35436
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Organic Chem 1
Updated:
2010-09-17 23:03:43
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organic
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Test 1
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  1. atom/group of atoms with characteristic reactivity
    Functional Group
  2. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    R-H

    CH3CH3
    Compound Type: Alkane

    Functional Group: none
  3. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    \C=C/
    / \

    • Compound type: Alkene
    • Functional Group: double bond
  4. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    -C=-C-
    H-C=-C-H
    • Compound Type: Alkyne
    • Functional Group: triple bond
  5. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    \ | /.......................H H H
    [O].........................\ | /
    / | \.........................[O]
    ............................../ | \
    ............................H H H
    • Compound Type: Aromatic
    • Functional Group: phenyl group
    • (benzene ring)
  6. Functional Group that are organic compounds containing only C and H
    Hydrocarbons
  7. Functional groups that contain other atoms
    heteroatoms
  8. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    R-X

    CH3-Br
    • Compound Type: Alkyl Halide
    • Functional Group: Halo
  9. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    R-OH

    CH3-OH
    • Compound Type: Ether
    • Functional Group: alkoxy group
  10. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    R-NH2

    CH3-NH2
    • Compound Type: Amine
    • Functional Group: Aminio Group
  11. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    R-SH

    CH3-SH
    • Compound Type: Thiol
    • Functional Group: Alkylthio Group
  12. Functional Group that contains several Hydroxy groups
    Sugars
  13. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    ..O........................O
    ..||...................||
    ./ \................./ \
    R H..........CH3 H
    • Compound Type: Aldehyde
    • Functional Group: Carbonyl group
  14. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    ..O..................O
    ..||...................||
    ./ \................./ \
    R R..........CH3 CH3
    • Compound Type: Ketone
    • Functional Group: Carbonyl group
  15. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    ..O..................O
    ..||...................||
    ./ \................../ \
    R OH........CH3 OH
    • Compound Type: caroxylic acid
    • Functional Group: Carboxyl group
  16. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    ..O..................O
    ..||...................||
    ./ \................../ \
    R OR........CH3 OCH3
    • Compound Type: Ester
    • Functional Group: none (ester group)
  17. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    ..O...........................O
    ..||............................||
    ./ \.....H/R.............../ \.....H
    R N./................CH3 ..N/
    ......\H/R.........................\H
    • Compound Type: Amide
    • Functional Group: none (Amide group)
  18. What is the Compound Type AND the Functional Group:
    ..O..................O
    ..||...................||
    ./ \................../ \
    R Cl........CH3 .. Cl
    • Compound Type: Acid chloride
    • Functional Group: none (not very common)
  19. Name for electron rich sites.
    May contain lone pairs.

    Cl (d-) <---*
    ...|(d+)
    /.....\
    |......|
    \ __/
    Nucleophilic
  20. Electron poor sites.
    C atoms bonded to electronegative atoms.

    Cl (d-) <---*
    ...|(d+)
    /.....\
    |......|
    \ __/
    electrophilic
  21. How does intermolecular forces affect bp and mp?
    stronger intermolecular forces = higher bp and higher mp
  22. Weak attractions due to temporary dipoles
    van der Waals forces
  23. When a van der Waals forces contains larger surface area, what happens to the attraction between molecules?
    larger surface area = stronger attraction between monecules
  24. when van der Waals forces contain less surface area, what happens to the attraction between molecules?
    less surface area = weaker attraction
  25. van der Waals forces have more branching, what happens to the attraction between molecules?
    more branching = weaker attraction
  26. Are van der Waals attractions stronger or weaker with polarization?
    polar molecules = stronger attractions
  27. interactions that take place between molecules with permanent dipoles (polar molecules)
    dipole - dipole interactions
  28. attraction between a H atom bonded to a O, N, or F with a lone pair on another O, N, or F atom
    Hydrogen bonding
  29. what makes organic compounds more soluable in water?
    hydroxyl groups (OH)
  30. what type of compounds to polar solvents dissolve?
    polar compounds
  31. what type of compounds to non-polar solvents dissolve?
    non-polar compounds
  32. Bronsted-Lowery definition of an acid
    Acid - H+ donor
  33. Bronsted-Lowery definition of a Base
    Base = H+ acceptor
  34. how does the pKa affect an acid?
    smaller the pKa = stronger the acid
  35. When is an acid - base reaction PRODUCT favored?
    if the pKa of the acid is LOWER than the pKa of the conjugate acid
  36. if the acid is STRONG, its conjugate base is...?
    strong acid = weak conjugate base
  37. if the acid is WEAK, the conjugate base is ...?
    weak acid = strong conjugate base
  38. Are organic acids weak or strong?
    weak
  39. 4 factors that determine conjugate base stability (therefore acidity):
    • 1.) Periodic trends - MOST IMPORTANT
    • 2.) Inductive effects
    • 3.) Resonance effects
    • 4.) Hybridization effects
  40. as you move accross the Periodic table, what happens to acidity stregnth?
    across the table = increase acidity
  41. as you move down the columns on the periodic table, what happens to acid stregnth?
    down columns = increase acidity
  42. which is more electronegative, C or O?
    which would be more stable with lone pairs? why?
    O - O - because being more electronegative, it doesnt mind being negative (-)
  43. Whats the difinition for a Lewis acid?
    Acid = electron pair acceptor
  44. Whats the definition for a Lewis base?
    Base = electron pair donor
  45. Which is more broad, the Lewis or Bronsted - Lowery definition of an acid?
    Lewis
  46. Are all Bronsted-Lowery acids Lewis acids?
    YES
  47. Are all Lewis acids Bronsted-Lowery acids?
    NO
  48. a joining of two atoms in a stable arrangement, completes outer shell of each atom (octet rule)
    bonding
  49. Type of bonding in organic compounds
    Covalent
  50. bonding where electrons are being shared
    covalent
  51. what determines the properties of Carbon and other elements
    valence electrons (outer shell)
  52. what is organic chemistry?
    study of carbon compounds
  53. what model is shown when chemical bonds are formed by shared electron pairs
    Lewis model
  54. model where chemical bonds are formed by overlap of singly occupied atomic orbitals
    Valence bond theory
  55. Why do we use valence bond theory to show our molecules in Organic Chemistry?
    provides a good description of bonding in compounds
  56. model where bonds are described using molecular orbitals - mathematical combinations of atomic orbitals
    molecular orbital theory
  57. charge assigned to a specific atom in a chemical structure
    (valence e- - "owned" e-)
    formal charge
  58. a TRUE STRUCTURE for a molecule
    hybrid of resonance structures
  59. how does resonance structures affect stability?
    larger # of resonance structures = greater stability
  60. a combination of orbitals
    hybridization

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