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DIagnosis of cancer: histology
- 1. loss of normal organization
- 2. too many cells piled up/cellular abnormalities
- 3. destructive and invasive growth
- 4. tumor cells in blood and lymph vessels
Diagnosis of cancer: Cytological exam
•High nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio
•Hyperchromasia (too much DNA)
•“Immature” chromatin, nucleoli
•Abnormal mitotic cells
- ---high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio
- --de-differentiation of the cells
- --too much DNA
- --Immature chromatin
- --abnormal mitotic cell
Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization: molecular probes used to identify specific chromosomes and specific chromosome regions. They can detect chromosomal translocationa and gene amplification.
riskiness of PSA screening
70% sensitivity, and 85% specificity
thus, there are a lot of false positivies which leads to unnecessary biopsies and surgeries.
- it is an insulin regulated receptor that mediates insulin-regulated glucose transport into the cell.
- WHen insulin acts on the insulin receptors, there is a signal transduction pathway started from inside the cell that acts on the GLUT4, telling it to take up glucose molecules.
- Breakdown of fatty acids: beta-oxidation of long chain fatty acids
- Detoxification of toxic molecules (ethanol)
- Synthesis of plasmalogens
How to make sure the peroxisomal enzymes get to their right place?
- Targeting signal (PTS1): "SKL" ( C-terminus)
- Transport receptor: Pex5, located in cytoplasm, binds signal and transports protein to the peroxisomes. Translocator: Translocates enzyme across peroxisomal membrane
- Signal peptidase removes the signal sequence
there is a defect in the targeting of peroxisomal enzymes, so you start to notice that your peroxisomes are decreased.