Biology Test pt 1

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jessica_n28
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35489
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Biology Test pt 1
Updated:
2010-10-04 00:53:52
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Biology
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Intro Bio, basic Chemistry, Biochemistry, and The Cell
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  1. Enzyme
    (Protein)
    • - Organic catalyst, usually a protein, that speeds up a reaction in cells due to it's particular shape
    • - Add energy (heat)
    • - Not changed or consumed in a reaction, only a small amount is needed & can be reused
  2. Catalyst
    (Protein)
    • - Reduces the energy needed to reach the activation state
    • - Protein enzymes
  3. Substrate
    (Enzyme/Protein)
    • - The reactant an enzyme acts on
    • - Binding of the substrate causes the enzyme to adjust it's shape slightly, leading to a better induced fit
    • - Enzymes have grooves that substrate sit in becoming the active site
  4. Nucleic Acids
    • - Store & transmit hereditary information
    • - Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    • - Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    • - Polymers called Polynucleotides
    • - Monomers called Nucleotides
    • - Each nucleotide consist of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, & a phosphate group
  5. Deoxyribonucleic Acid
    (Nucleic Acid)
    • - Direct synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) & through mRNA control protein synthesis
    • - Provides directions for it's own replication
    • - DNA molecule has 2 polynucleotides sprialing around an imaginary axis, forming a double helix
    • - The 2 backbones run in opposite 5' to 3' directions
    • - Form hydrogen bond 'A pairs with T' & 'G pairs with C'
  6. ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate
    (Nuclic Acid)
    • - Primary energy-transferring molecule in the cell
    • - "Energy Currency"
    • - Consists of an organic molecule - adenosine attached to a string of 3 phosphate groups
    • - Energy is released from ATP when bond is broken
  7. Protein
    • Protein Functions
    • - Structural support/Storage/Movement
    • - Messengers
    • - Transport
    • - Defense
    • - Catalysis
    • Composed of one or more polypeptides
    • Shape of protein determines it's function
  8. Amino Acids
    (Protein)
    • Monomers of polypetides/protiens
    • - Composed of a carboxy group, amino group, & an "r" group
    • - "R" group makes the properties of the amino acid different
    • - Cells use 20 amino acids to amke thousands of proteins
    • (will give up a hydrogen making it COO-)
  9. Polypeptides
    (Protein)
    • -Polymer of amino acids, joined by a peptide bond to from a long chain
    • - Unique linear sequence of amino acids
  10. Protein Structure
    • 1. Primary structure: unique sequence of amino acids
    • 2. Secondary structure: consists of coils & folds in the polypeptide chain
    • 3. Tertiary structure: determined by interactions among various side chains ("R" group)
    • 4. Quaternary structure: Results when a protein consist of multiple polypeptides
  11. Denaturation
    (Protein)
    • - Loss of normal shape by an enzyme so that it no longer functions
    • - Alternation in pH, Salt concentration, temp & other enviornmental factors
    • - Denature protein is biologically inactive
  12. Lipids
    • - Compound that is insoluble in water
    • - Utilized for energy storage, membranes, insulation, & protection
    • - Hydrophobic
  13. Fats
    (Lipids)
    • - Constructed from 2 types of smaller molecles: glycerol & fatty acids
    • - Major function of fats is energy storage
    • - Saturated fats: saturated fatty acid, mostly animal fat, solid at room temp
    • - Unsaturated fats: unsaturated fatty acid, plants & fish fats, liquid at room temp (double bonded, causes bending)
  14. Phospholipids
    (Lipids)
    • - molecule that form the bilayer of the cell's membranes
    • - 2 fatty acids attached to glycerol & a phospate group
    • - Polar head (hydrophilic)
    • - Nonpolar tails (hydrophobic)
    • - Assemble so that the polar heads are pointing outward & the nonpolar tails are pointing inward
  15. Triglycerides
    (Lipids)
    • - 3 fatty acids are joined to a glycerol by an ester linkage
    • - Energy storage
  16. Steroids
    (Lipids)
    • - Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings
    • - Cholesterol: important steroid, component in animal cell membranes, precursor from which all other steriods are synthesized
    • - Testosterone & Estrogen
    • - Nonpolar: can go through cell membranes
  17. Carbohydrates
    • - Serve as energy & building material
    • - Include sugar & polymer of sugar
  18. Monosaccharide
    (Carbohydrates)
    • - Simplest carbohydrate/single (simple) sugars
    • - Used for short term energy storage, serve as structural componets of larger organic molecules, & source of carbon
    • - Classified by location of carbonyl group & by # of carbons in the carbon skeleton
  19. Disaccharides
    (Carbohydrate)
    • - Formed when a dehydration reaction joins 2 monosaccharide
    • - This bond is called a glycosidic linkage
    • - Lactose, Maltose, Sucrose (common table sugar)
  20. Polysaccharide
    (Carbohydrate)
    • - Complex carbohydrate, polymer of monosaccharides (long chains of simple sugar)
    • - Storage & structral roles
    • - Starch (storage polysaccharide of plants)
    • - Glycogen (storage polysaccharide of animals)
    • - Cellulose (component of the tough wall of plant cells)
  21. Monomer
    • - Repeated units are small molecules (building blocks)
    • - Connected by Covalent bonds that form through the loss of a water molecule
    • Monosaccharide
    • Glycerol & Fatty acid
    • Amino Acid
    • Nucleotide
  22. Polymers
    • - A long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
    • - Built from monomers
    • Polysaccharide (carbohydrates)
    • Lipid
    • Protein
    • Nucleic Acid
  23. Carbon
    • - Unique in it's ability to form large, complex, & dicerse molecules
    • - Carbon compounds since it only needs 4 electrons it can make single, double, or triple bonds
    • - Can form long chains or rings
    • - Carbon chains form the skeleton of most organic molecules
  24. Functional Groups
    • - Groups of atoms that are attached to the skeleton of organic molecules
    • Hydroxyl Group: Carbohydrate, Alcohols
    • Carbonyl Group: Formaldehyde
    • Carboxyl Group: Amino Acids, Vinegar
    • Amino Group: Ammonia
    • Sulfhydryl Group: Proteins, Rubber
    • Phosphate Group: Phospholipids, Nucleic Acids, ATP
  25. Hydrolysis Reaction
    • - Splitting of a compound by the addition of water, with the H+ being incorporated in one fragment and the OH- in the other
    • - Bonds are broken by adding water molecules
  26. Dehydration Reaction
    • - Chemical reaction resulting in a covalent bond with the accompanying loss of a water molecule
    • - Remove a water molecule, forming a new bond
  27. Isomers
    - Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
  28. Ion
    • - Particle that carries a negative or positive charge
    • Anion: negative
    • Cation: Positive
  29. Atom
    - Smallest particle of an element that displays the properties of the element
  30. Element
    - Substance that cannot be broken down into substances with different properties; composed of only one type of atom
  31. Biology
    • - Scientific study of life
    • - Multidisciplinary science drawing on the insight from other sciences
  32. Basic units of the metric system
    • Mass= Grams: g
    • Lengeth= Meter: m
    • Volume= Liter: l
  33. Metric units prefixes
    • tera (T) 1 trillion 10^12
    • giga (G) 1 billion 10^9
    • mega (M) 1 million 10^6
    • kilo (k) 1 thousand 10^3
    • hecto (h) 1 hundred 10^2
    • deka (da) 1 ten 10
    • Base Unit (m,g,l)
    • deci (d) 1 tenth 10^-1
    • centi (c) 1 hundredth 10^-2
    • milli (m) 1 thousandth 10^-3
    • micro (µ) 1 millionth 10^-6
    • nano (n) 1 billionth 10^-9
    • pico (p) 1 trillionth 10^-12
  34. Homeostasis
    - maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an organism by means of self-regulating mechanisms
  35. Properties of Life
    • - Form high degree of ordered structures
    • - Regulate internal conditions
    • - Harvest and use energy
    • - Reproduce and evolve
    • - Grow and develop
    • - Respond to environmental stimuli
  36. Hierarchy of Life
    • Organ systems
    • Organ
    • Tissues
    • Cells
    • Organelles
    • Molecules
    • Atom
  37. Natural Selection
    Mechanism of evolution caused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce; results in adaptation of the enviornment
  38. Structure of an atom
    • - Proton: positive subatomic particle, located in the nucleus
    • - Neutron: neutral subatomic particle, located in the nucleus
    • - Electrons: negative subatomic particle, that has no weight, orbits the nucleus of an atom in an orbital
  39. Isotope
    - Atom of the same element having the same atomic number but a different mass number due to the number of neutron
  40. Molecule
    - Union of 2 or more atoms of the same element; also the smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of the compound
  41. Chemical Bonding
    - Enable atoms to give up or acquire electrons in order to complete their outer shell
  42. Matter
    • - Anything that takes up space & has mass
    • solid
    • liquid
    • gas
  43. Covalent Bond
    • - Chemical bond in which atoms share one pair of electrons
  44. Ionic Bond
    • - Chemical bond in which ions are attracted to one another by opposite charges
  45. Polar Bond
    • - One atom is more electronegative & the atom do not share the electron equally
  46. Nonpolar covalent bond
    • - The atoms share the electron equally
  47. Hydrogen Bond
    • - Forms when a hydrogen atom already bonded is attracted to another electronegative atom
  48. Dissociation
    - General process in which ionic compounds separate or split into smaller particles
  49. Properties of water
    • - Cohesion: molecules attract other water molecules
    • - Capillarity: water molecules climb
    • - Adhesion: water molecules attract other chraged substances
    • - High heat of vaporization
    • - Solvent
    • - High heat capacity: resist changes in temp
  50. Hydrophilic
    • (water loving) Dominated by ionic or polar bonds
    • can absorb water
  51. Hydrophobic
    • (water fearing) Noniconic & have nonpolar covalent bond
    • major molecules of cell membranes
  52. Moles
    • Number of molecules in a unit
    • Avogadro's number 6.02x10^23
  53. Buffer
    • - Substance or group of substances that tend to resist pH changes in a solution
    • - Important to living organism
    • - Accept hydrogen ion from the solution when they are in excess and donate hydrogen ion when they have been depleted
  54. Base
    • - Molecules tending to lower the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and raise the pH numericaly
    • pH 14 -> 8
  55. Acid
    • Molecules tending to raise they hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and to lower it's pH numerically
    • pH 6 -> 1
  56. Prokarytoic Cell (before nucleus)
    • Simplest organism
  57. Eukaryotic Cell
    • - Characterized by compartmentalization by an endomembrane system & the presence of membrane-bound organelles
    • - Type of cell that has a membrane-bound nucleus & organelles
  58. Fluid-Mosaic Model (Cell Theory)
    • - Model of the plasma membrane based on the changing location & pattern of protein molecules in a fluid phospholipid bilayer
  59. Cytoplasm (intracellular fluid)
    • - Contents of a cell between the nucleus & the plasma membrane that contain the organelles
    • - Semi-fluid material (nucleoplasm & cytosol)
  60. Extracellular fluid
    • - Interstitial fluid: fluid on the exterior of the cell within tissues
    • - Plasma: fluid component of blood
  61. Solution
    • - Homogeneous mixture of 2 or more components
    • Solvent: dissolving medium
    • Solutes: components in smaller quantities within a solution
  62. Diffusion
    • - Movement of molecules or ions from a region of higer concentration to one of lower concntration; it requires no energy & stops when the distribution is equal
    • - Movement is random
  63. Diffusion across a membrane
    • - Random movement of the molecules will cause some to pass through the pores trying to reach equilibrium
    • - Higher concentration will diffuse first
    • so there is a different rate of diffusion depending concentration
  64. Plasma Membrane
    • - Composed of a lipid bilayer w/ globular proteins embedded in the bilayer
    • - Membrane surrounding the cytoplasm that consist of a phospholipid bilayer w/ embedded protein
    • - Regulates the entrance & exit of molecules from the cell
    • - It's a boundry & protects
    • Keeps things in & out
  65. Plasma Membrane functions
    • Transport
    • Enzymatic activity
    • Signal transduction
    • Cell-cell recognition
    • Intercellular joining
    • Attachement to the cytoskeleton & extracellular maxtrix
  66. Membrane Transport
    • - Selective permeability, it allows some substances to cross it more easily than others
    • - Passive transport : simple diffusion, dialysis, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
    • - Active transport: membrane pump, coupled transport
  67. Permeability of lipid bilayer
    • Factors: lipid solubility, size, charge (electronegativity), presence of channels & transporters
    • - Hydrophobic molecules are lipds soluble & can pass through the membrane rapidly
    • - Polar molecules do not cross rapidly
    • - Transport protein allow passage of hydrophilic substance across the membrane

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