chap 1 - flashcards - mader bio.txt

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Anonymous
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35512
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chap 1 - flashcards - mader bio.txt
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2010-09-18 10:31:56
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BIO MADER CHAP
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A View of Life - Biology
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  1. Adaptation
    Organism's modification in structure- function- or behavior that better suits the environment
  2. Animal
    Multicellular- heterotrophic eukaryote characterized by the presence of muscular and nervous tissue and undergoing development to achieve its final form
  3. binomial nomenclature
    Scientific name of an organism- the first part of which designates the genus and the second part of which designates the specific epithet.
  4. Biodiversity
    Total number of species- the variability of their genes- and the communities in which they live.
  5. Biology
    Scientific study of life.
  6. biosphere
    Zone of air- land- and water at the surface of the Earth in which living organisms are found.
  7. Cell
    Smallest unit that displays the properties of life; composed of organelle-containing cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane.
  8. Class
    One of the categories of subgroups used by taxonomists to group species; class within a phylum or division.
  9. Community
    Assemblage of species interacting with one another within the same environment.
  10. Conclusion
    Statement made following an experiment as to whether or not the results support the hypothesis.
  11. Control
    Sample that goes through all the steps of an experiment but does not contain the variable being tested; a standard against which the results of an experiment are checked.
  12. Data
    Facts or information collected through observation and/or experimentation.
  13. deductive reasoning
    Process of logic and reasoning- using "if . . . then" statements.
  14. Domain
    Largest of the categories- or taxa- used by taxonomists to group species; the three domains are Archaea- Bacteria- and Eukarya.
  15. domain Archaea
    One of the three domains of life; contains prokaryotic cells that often live in extreme habitats and have unique genetic- biochemical- and physiological characteristics; its members are sometimes referred to as archaea.
  16. domain Bacteria
    One of the three domains of life; contains prokaryotic cells that differ from archaea because they have their own unique genetic- biochemical- and physiological characteristics.
  17. domain Eukarya
    One of the three domains of life- consisting of organisms with eukaryotic cells; includes protists
  18. Ecosystem
    Biological community together with the associated abiotic environment; characterized by a flow of energy and a cycling of inorganic nutrients.
  19. emergent property
    Quality that appears as biological complexity increases.
  20. Energy
    Capacity to do work and bring about change; occurs in a variety of forms.
  21. Eukaryote
    Type of cell that has a membrane bounded nucleus and membranous organelles; found in organisms within the domain Eukarya.
  22. Evolution
    Descent of organisms from common ancestors with the development of genetic and phenotypic changes over time that make them more suited to the environment.
  23. Experiment
    Artificial situation devised to test a hypothesis.
  24. experimental design
    Methodology by which an experiment will seek to support the hypothesis.
  25. experimental variable
    Factor of the experiment being tested.
  26. Extinction
    Total disappearance of a species or higher group.
  27. Family
    One of the categories- or taxa- used by taxonomists to group species; the taxon above the genus level.
  28. Fungi
    Saprotrophic decomposer; the body is made up of filaments called hyphae that form a mass called a mycelium.
  29. Gene
    Unit of heredity existing as alleles on the chromosomes; in diploid organisms- typically two alleles are inherited�one from each parent.
  30. Genus
    One of the categories- or taxa- used by taxonomists to group species; contains those species that are most closely related through evolution.
  31. Homeostasis
    Maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an organism by means of self regulating mechanisms.
  32. Hypothesis
    Supposition established by reasoning after consideration of available evidence; it can be tested by obtaining more data- often by experimentation.
  33. inductive reasoning
    Using specific observations and the process of logic and reasoning to arrive at a hypothesis.
  34. Kingdom
    One of the categories- or taxa- used by taxonomists to group species; the taxon above phylum.
  35. law (or "principle")-Theory that is generally accepted by an overwhelming number of scientists.
  36. Metabolism
    All of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell during growth and repair.
  37. Model
    Simulation of a process that aids conceptual understanding until the process can be studied firsthand; a hypothesis that describes how a particular process could possibly be carried out.
  38. Multicellular
    Organism composed of many cells; usually has organized tissues- organs- and organ systems.
  39. natural selection
    Mechanism of evolution caused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce; results in adaptation to the environment.
  40. Observation
    Step in the scientific method by which data are collected before a conclusion is drawn.
  41. Order
    One of the categories- or taxa- used by taxonomists to group species; the taxon above the family level.
  42. Organism
    Individual living thing.
  43. Phenomenon
    Observable event.
  44. Photosynthesis
    Process occurring usually within chloroplasts whereby chlorophyll-containing organelles trap solar energy to reduce carbon dioxide to carbohydrate.
  45. Phylum
    One of the categories- or taxa- used by taxonomists to group species; the taxon above the class level.
  46. Plant
    Multicellular- photosynthetic- eukaryotes that increasingly become adapted to live on land.
  47. Population
    Group of organisms of the same species occupying a certain area and sharing a common gene pool.
  48. Prediction
    Step of the scientific process that follows the formulation of a hypothesis and assists in creating the experimental design.
  49. Principle
    Theory that is generally accepted by an overwhelming number of scientists; also called a law.
  50. Prokaryote
    Organism that lacks the membrane-bounded nucleus and membranous organelles typical of eukaryotes.

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