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When & where was rhetoric born?
467 BCE in Syracuse, Sicily
Who were the Sophists ?
• Group of orators, educators, and advocates who developed rhetoric as asystematic study.
What did the Sophists teach?
• ARETE (def.): virtue, personal excellence, ability to manage one's affairs intelligently to succeed in public life, qualities of a "natural leader"• Effective public speaking, leadership, persuasive speaking
Why were the Sophists controversial?
- They taught for pay.
- They were foreigners.
- They taught cultural relativism.
- Taught a view of truth that emerged from a clash of arguments.
- Built a view of justice on the notion of social agreement or nomos.
- method used in Sophist teaching of inventing arguments for andagainst any position.
- oused DISSOI LOGOI (contradictory arguments) based on ENDOXA (widelyheld premises)
- Sophists believed strong arguments could be produced for or against anyclaim & argument met counterargument to yield a better view of truth
- The doctrine KAIROS that one must consider all factors surrounding an issue
method used by Sophists to compel students to memorize speechesand compose their own speeches based on these modelsoa word describing a speech prepared for a formal occasion.
Who is Plato?
Greek philosopher and critic of the Sophists
What is the Gorgias?
Plato's dialogue attacking the Sophists and rhetoric
What are Plato's arguments in Gorgias?
- The nature of rhetoric, recipes for flattery and trickery
- Sophists aimed only at persuasion about justice though manipulationof public opinion, real understanding of justice demands true knowledge(episteme)
Who is Aristotle?
- Greek philosopher and pupil of Platoocritical of rhetoric early in his career but later turned to a more careful studyof the art
- Approached rhetoric pragmatically & systematically
What are Aristotle's key teachings concerning truth, argument, & rhetoric?
LOGOS, PATHOS, ETHOS
proofs found in arguments & the evidence backing them, words, or logicof a speech
emotional appeals' ability to affect the judgement of audiences, can bemore powerful than logical appeals
- proof found in good character of the speaker, the persuasive potentialof the speaker's character or personal credibility
- The speaker must exhibit 1) intelligence, 2) virtue & 3) good will toward theaudience
Who is Lloyd Bitzer?
- Author of article "The Rhetorical Situation"
- Defined rhetoric as discourse in response to a situation
- Marked a turning point in study of rhetorical theory
- Important and instrumental for the definition of rhetoric
- an imperfection marked by urgency; a defect, an obstacle, somethingwaiting to be doneoprovokes action to a certain degree through rhetorical discourse
- A human response
RHETORICAL AUDIENCE (def.):
- consists only of those persons who are capable ofbeing influenced by discourse and of being mediators of change
- Only people capable of hearing it with the power to make a change &influence a response
- set of influences in the situation that have the power toconstrain decision & action needed to modify the exigenceoA limiting force & a compelling force
- The boundaries within which rhetoric is both created & advanced
FITTING RESPONSE (def.):
Bitzer argued that the rhetorical situation will lead to theappropriate response.
Fundamental claims of feminism & feminist rhetoric
- Main assumptions 1) women's experiences are different from men's and 2)women's voices are not heard in language
- Biological and socialization differences
- denied a voice in culture, access to power, and Unable to pass on meaningsb/c they're excluded from language, rhetoric, and history
- Does not require or assume intent to persuade on the part of the source
- An invitation to understanding as a means to create a relationship rooted inequality, immanent value, and self-determination.
- Seeks not to persuade but rather to invite the audience to enter the rhetor'sworld and see it as the rhetor does
- Change may result, but change is not the purpose
- The goal of rhetoric is to convert others to one's views
- A violent act - suggests that by converting you conquer others under the justification that the conquest is good for them and what they wanted
What is meant by "gender as rhetorically constructed"?
- Social views of gender are passed on through communication
- Notions of masculinity & femininity are constructed through persuasivecommunication
- Rhetorical movements alter cultural understandings of gender & sculpt socialmeanings of men and women