• Group of orators, educators, and advocates who developed rhetoric as asystematic study.
What did the Sophists teach?
• ARETE (def.): virtue, personal excellence, ability to manage one's affairs intelligently to succeed in public life, qualities of a "natural leader"• Effective public speaking, leadership, persuasive speaking
Why were the Sophists controversial?
They taught for pay.
They were foreigners.
They taught cultural relativism.
Taught a view of truth that emerged from a clash of arguments.
Built a view of justice on the notion of social agreement or nomos.
method used in Sophist teaching of inventing arguments for andagainst any position.
oused DISSOI LOGOI (contradictory arguments) based on ENDOXA (widelyheld premises)
Sophists believed strong arguments could be produced for or against anyclaim & argument met counterargument to yield a better view of truth
The doctrine KAIROS that one must consider all factors surrounding an issue
method used by Sophists to compel students to memorize speechesand compose their own speeches based on these modelsoa word describing a speech prepared for a formal occasion.
Who is Plato?
Greek philosopher and critic of the Sophists
What is the Gorgias?
Plato's dialogue attacking the Sophists and rhetoric
What are Plato's arguments in Gorgias?
The nature of rhetoric, recipes for flattery and trickery
Sophists aimed only at persuasion about justice though manipulationof public opinion, real understanding of justice demands true knowledge(episteme)
Who is Aristotle?
Greek philosopher and pupil of Platoocritical of rhetoric early in his career but later turned to a more careful studyof the art