Microbes and Antimicrobials

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Microbes and Antimicrobials
2010-09-19 21:55:39
IBHS exam Dr Munson

Microbes and Antimicrobials
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  1. What is LIFE (cellular vision of life)?
    • Metabolism
    • Regulated growth
    • Reproduction
  2. How is "life" studied ?
    • Molecular
    • Cellular
    • Organism (anatomy and physiology)
    • Evolution
    • Ecology
    • Behavior
  3. What are microbes?
    • Organisms that are not visible to the naked eye
    • Organisms that pass through a stage that is not visible to the naked eye (like worms that we can see as an adult but not larvae)
  4. Microbes have a wide variety of different size
  5. Comparing features:

    Helminths "worms"
    • Cell type/ Structure: Eurkaryote/Multicelluar
    • Nucleus: Yes
    • Genetic Material: DNA linear
    • Motile: Some
  6. Comparing features:

    • Cell type/ Structure: Eurkaryote/Multicelluar
    • Nucleus: Yes
    • Genetic Material: DNA linear
    • Motile: Some
  7. Comparing Features:

    • Cell type/ Structure: Eurkaryote/Multicelluar
    • Nucleus: Yes
    • Genetic Material: DNA linear
    • Motile: Some Stages
  8. Comparing features:

    • Cell type/ Structure: Prokaryote/Unicellular
    • Nucleus: No
    • Genetic Material: DNA circular
    • Motile: Some
  9. Comparing features:

    • Cell type/ Structure: Acellular
    • Nucleus: No
    • Genetic Material: DNA or RNA (usually "linear")
    • Motile: No
  10. Comparing features:

    • Cell type/ Structure: Acellular
    • Nucleus: No
    • Genetic Material: "protein"
    • Motile: No
  11. What two microbes are acellular?
    Viruses and Prions
  12. Do bacteria have nucleus?
    NO they are prokaryotes (before "nuts")
  13. Do Bacteria have DNA?
    Yes it is Circular
  14. Protein is the genetic material for which of the following?
    a. Protozoa
    b. Fungi
    c. Viruses
    d. Prions
  15. Do bacterias have cell wall?
    Yes some may have a cell wall
    • -Prokayotic (non-nucleated)
    • -May have a cell wall
    • -Circular DNA
    • -Unicellular
    • -May be motile (flagellated or ciliated)
  17. Bacteria Morphology:
    • Coccus (spherical)
    • Coccobacillus (ovalish)
    • Bacillus (rod like)
    • Spirilla (spiral)
  18. Bacteria Morphology:

    • Diplo- Pairs
    • Staph- Clusters
    • Strept- Chains
  19. DIPLO-
  20. Staph-
  21. Strept-
  22. Bacteria:
    Cocci (spheres):
    Streptococcus pyogenes-pharyngitis (step throat)
    Mycoplasm pneumonia- walking pneumonia
  23. Strep Thoat
    • A cocci (sphere)
    • Streptococcus pyogenes- pharyngitis
    • Gram Positive
    • Aerotolerant
  24. Walking pneumonia
    • Cocci (spheres)
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    • No Cell Wall
    • Facultative anaerobe
  25. Bacteria:
    Bacilli (rods)
    Clostridium tetani- tetanus
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis- tuberculosis
    Escherichia coli- gastroenteritis, UTI
  26. Tetanus
    • Bacilli (rods)
    • Clostridium tetani
    • Gram Positive
    • Obligate Anaerobe
  27. Turberculosis
    • Bacili (rods)
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Special Cell Wall (Acid fast stains RED)
    • Obligate Aerobe
  28. UTI/ Gastroenteritis
    • Bacilli (rods)
    • Escherichia coli (e. coli)
    • Gram Negative
    • Facultative Anaerobe
  29. Bacteria:
    Bordetella pertussis- Whooping cough
    Haemophilus influenza- eye, ear, sinus infections, pneumonia
  30. Whooping cough
    • Coccobacillus
    • Bordetella pertussis
    • Gram Negative
    • Obligate Aerobe
  31. Eye, Ear, Sinus infection
    • Coccobacillus
    • Haemophilus influenza
    • (also pneumonia)
    • Gram negative
    • Facultative Anaerobe
  32. Pneumonia
    • Coccobacillus
    • Haemophilus Influenza
    • (also ear, eye, and sinus infections)
    • Gram negative
    • Facultative Anaerobe
  33. Bacteria:
    Spirilla (spirals)
    Treponema pallidum- syphillis
    Borrelia burgdorferi- lyme disease
  34. Syphillis
    • Spirilla (spirals)
    • Treponema pallidum
    • Gram Negative
    • Microaerophiles
  35. Lyme disease
    • Spirilla (spirals)
    • Borrelia burgdorferi
    • Gram Negative
    • Microaerophiles
  36. Which of the follwing is the bacteria that causes UTIs?
    A. Borrelia burgodorferi
    B. Treponema pallidum
    C. Escherichia coli
    D. Clostridium tetani
    C. Escherichia coli

    (e. coli...... a BACILLI)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Which of the following bacteria is the cause of syphilis?
    A. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
    B. Bordetella petussis
    C. Borrelia burgdorferi
    D. Treponema pallidum
    D. Treponema pallidum (a SPIRILLA)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. Which of the following is bacilli caused?
    a. Strep throat
    b. UTI
    c. Syphillis
    d. Lyme disease
    UTI (caused by e.coli)
  39. Which of the following is caused by a cocci?
    A. walking pneumonia
    B. lyme disease
    C. pneumonia
    D. tuberculosis
    A. walking pneumonia

    (caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. T/F Whooping cough is caused by a spirilla bacteria?
    F Whooping cough is caused by bortella pertusis a COCCOBACILLUS
  41. The morphology of a bacteria depends on the CELL WALL
  42. Gram Positive Bacteria: cell walls
    -very thick peptidoglycan layer (provides support and structure)
    -alternating NAG/NAM which forms a long strand of carbs linked together by a ß-1,4 linkage (horizontal)
    -short 3-5 amino acids connect NAM molecules in each layer (diagonal lines)
    -Lipoteichoic acids (LTA) (only found in gram+ bacteria) extend through the entire peptidoglycan layer and appear on the cell surface
  43. Gram Negative Bacteria : cell walls
    Smaller cell walls
    less peptidoglycan
    NO LTA instead LPS
    Double membrane ( need porins to get non lipophillic into cell membrane)
  44. A polysaccharide only found in gram positive bacteria that extends through the entire peptidoglycan layer and apper on the cell surface
    Lipoteichoic acids (LTA)
  45. No cell wall MYCOPLASMA
    -resemble gram positive but no peptidoglycan
  46. "Special" Mycolic Acid Cell Walls
    _mycobacterium- Turburculosis
    -need a Porin to get things through lipid rich cell wall
  47. Bacterial Cell Walls:

    what are the FOUR types
    • Gram Positive
    • Gram Negative
    • "Special" mycolic acid cell wall
    • No Cell Wall Mycoplasma
  48. Why is turburculosis so hard to treat?
    Because its one of those "special" mycobacteriums and its hard to get through them
  49. Gram Staining-

    Apply a crystal violet and then iodine
    Stain everything purplish
    acetone/alcohol wash everything that didnt strongly bind gets washed
  50. Gram staining works for identifying gram positive or gram negative
    • Gram Negative- redish/pink
    • Gram Positive- Purple
  51. What type of staining test would need to be used to identify turburculosis?
    ACID fast (stains red because of the mycolic acid rich wall)
  52. Acid Fast staining: If blue it means it is non AF and therefore GRAM Staining would be reliable
  53. What color does a mycoplasma stain?
    RED like a gram Negative due to all the membrane and minimal cell wall(although it is more gram positive)
  54. What would you classify it as if......
    Gram stains purple
    Acid fast stains blue
  55. REMINDER: if your acid fast stains RED then it is a mycobacterium and DONT have to use a gram stain
  56. If Acid fast stains RED/Pinkish is this stain reliable?
    yes it means it has a mycolic acid cell wall (MYCOBACTERIUM... turburculosis)
  57. Bacteria Cell Walls:
    Gram Positive:
    • Steptococcus pyogenes- pharyngitis (strep throat)
    • Clostridium tetani- Tetanus
  58. Bacteria Cell Walls:
    No Cell Wall
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae- walking pneumonia
  59. Bacteria Cell Wall:
    Special Cell Wall
    Mycobacterium turberculosis- turberculosis (ACID fast stays RED because of mycolic acid in cell wall)
  60. Bacteria Cell Walls;
    Gram Negative
    • Bordetella pertussis- whooping cough
    • Escherichia coli- food poisoning
    • Haemophilus influenza- eye, ear, sinus
    • Treponema pallidum- syphillis
    • Borrelia burgdorferi- lyme disease
  61. Bacteria- Oxygen Requirements:
    Obligate Aerobe
    Bordetella pertusis- Whooping cough
    Mycobacterium turberculosis
  62. Bacteria- Oxygen Requirements
    Treponema pallidum- syphillis
    Borrelia burgdorferi- lyme disease
  63. Bacteria- Oxygen requirements:
    Streptococcus pyogenes- pharyngitis (strep throat)
  64. Bacteria- Oxygen requirements:
    Facultative Anaerobe
    Haemophilus influenza- eye, ear, sinus infections, pneumonia
    Escherichia coli- gastroenteritis, UTI
    Mycoplasma pneumoniae- walking pneumonia
  65. Bacteria- Oxygen requirements:
    Obligate Anaerobe
    Clostridium tetani- tetanus
  66. Gram postive or negative: most things on our skin
    gram postive
  67. Obligate Aerobe- absolutely need oxygen (no oxygen no growth)
    Microaerophiles- need a small amount of oxygen
    Aerotolerant- it doesnt matter if theres oxygen or not
    Facultative Anaerobe- really prefer oxygen but can be fine without it
    Obligate Anaerobe- absolutely HATE oxygen
  68. Treating Bacterial Infections:

    Cell Wall: Beta Lactam Antibiotics
    • Prevent cross linking of peptidoglycan cell walls
    • Gram positive and gram infections
    • Penicillins and its derivatives (penams)
    • Cephalosporins (cephems), monobactams, carbapenems
  69. Could a Beta-lactam antibiotic be given for walking pneumonia?
    NO because it is a MYCOplasma that has NO CELL WALL
  70. Treating Bacterial Infections:

    Oxygen Requirements
    • Metronidazole
    • -reduced by the pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase system
  71. Treating Bacterial Infections:

    Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: AMINOGLYCOSIDES
    • Gentamicin, Streptomycin
    • -Binds bacterial 16S (small) subunit and prevents ribosomal translocation
  72. Treating Bacterial Infections:

    Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: LINCOSAMIDES
    Binds bacterial 23S (large) subunt and prevents ribosomal translocation
  73. PROTOZOA (remeber more like us than bacteria)
    • Eukaryotic (nucleated)
    • Lack Cell Wall
    • Linear DNA
    • Unicellular
    • May be motile (flagellated or cilliated)

    • Plasmodium spp.
    • NONmotile (only one)
    • carried by and transmitted by mosquito
    • Africa

    • Toxoplasma gondii
    • can lead to Encephalitis
    • if your pregnant dont change the cat litter if they have been eating mice :)

    Amoebic encephalitis
    • Naegleria fowleri
    • South Eastern US
    • Brain eating amoeba
    • In water swallow water goes up the nose
    • in 2009, 2 cases 1 lived and 1 died (FIRST time someone has lived)
    • in 2010, first time a case in MINNESOTA

    • Giardia lamblia
    • Hikers Diarrhea
    • Seen in daycares... POOPY Pants!!!

    African Sleeping Sickness
    • Trypanosoma brucei
    • lead to heart failure

    • Trichomonas vaginalis
    • Part of the normal flora but if it gets spued for acid to basic
    • Vaginal parasite infection
    • Can be sexually transmitted
  80. Life cycle of Malaria:
    • 1. A female anopheles mosquito bites a human or animal that is already infected with the malaria disease in order to feed. By doing this they draw the blood and the malaria parasites that are in the blood.
    • 2. The same now infected mosquito will bit another human or animal in order to feed again and the parasite that the mosquito has previously infected is deposited into the human or animal's bloodstream.
    • 3. Within just 30 minutes the parasite travels to the victims liver and the malaria life cycle is well underway.
    • 4. Once the parasite has reached the liver it begins to reproducing at an enormous rate. Some of the parasites will remain dormant in the liver only to become active years after the initial infection.
    • 5. The new parasites enter the bloodstream and attack the red blood cells. They infiltrate the red blood cells and begin to reproduce inside them further causing the red blood cells to swell and finally burst releasing all of the new parasites into the blood stream. The process is repeated with the parasites attacking and infiltrating further red blood cells.
    • 6. The red blood cells should be carrying oxygen all over the body but because they are being attacked and destroyed this does not happen and a result of this oxygen depletion is onset of fever and chills which are the initial symptoms of malaria to be experienced by the victim. The bodies immune system has been damaged and makes it susceptible to further illness.
    • 7. After being release dormant malaria parasites travel through the bloodstream where they will be ingested by a new mosquito that bites the victim. This is the end of the malaria life cycle in one person and the beginning for the next victim.
  81. Treating Protozol Infections:

    • Target: HEPATIC stages
    • ------>Primaquine phosphate
    • Target: BLOOD Stage
    • ------> Cholorquine phosphate -prevents biocrystalliation of heme
    • ------> Mefloquine (Lariam)- phospholipid uptake
    • ------> Atovaquone + proguanil (Malarone)
    • Atovaquone- inhibits ATP and nucleic acid synthesis
    • Progunail- inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
  82. Treating Protozol Infections:


    NEW research Actin- actin similiar to ours
    • Metronidazole (Flagyl)- reduced by the pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase system
    • Nitazoxanide (Alinia)- inhibits the pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase system
    • Albendazole (Albenza)- Inhibits tubulin assembly into microtubules
  83. FUNGI

    really hard organism to kill... VERY similar to animals but we have cholesterol they have ERGOSTEROL and the Chitin cell wall
    • Eukaryotic (nucleated)
    • Chitin cell wall
    • Linear DNA
    • Unicellular (or multicellular)
    • May be motile
  84. FUNGI:

    Yeast: Candida spp. (predominately C. albicans)
    -leads to Candidiasis - oral thrush/ vaginitis (classic yeast infections)

    Molds: Dermatophytes- Tinea spp.
    - Pedis-athletes foot
    - Capitis- head
    - cruris- jock itch
    - corporis- ring worm (yes MOLD not a worm hmmmm GROSS)
  85. Treating Fungal Infections:

    • Fluconazole (Diflucan)-oral, Ticonazole (Monistat)-topical
    • -Inhibits 14α-demethylase
    • -Prevents ergosterol synthesis

    • Nystatin-oral
    • Binds to ergosterol
    • Ergosterol aggregation in cell membrane
  86. Treating Fungal Infections:

    • Fluconazole-oral, Clotrimazole-oral or topical,Ketoconazole-topical
    • -Inhibits 14α-demethylase

    • Butenafine-topical, Terbinafine -topical or oral
    • Inihibits squalene epoxidase (earlier in the pathway than 14α-demethylase)
    • Prevents ergosterol synthesis

    very similar to animal cells
    • Eukaryotic
    • Lack Cell wall
    • Linear DNA
    • Multicellular
    • May be motile flagellated or cilliated
  88. Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
    Adults have flattened body
    Bilateral symmetry
    Organ systems-Nervous system, Digestive System (common mouth and anus), Reproductive system(hermaphroditic)
    Cestoda (segmented - tapeworms)
    Larvae and cysts infect “animal” tissue
    Adults infect human intestines (30 ft long!)

    }Trematoda (non-segmented-flukes)

    }Larvae infect aquatic
    animals and plants (snail, clam, fish, crab, aquatic plant)

    Adults infect humans (liver,
    lungs, blood vessels
  89. Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

    Cestoda (segmented tapeworms)
    • Larvae and cysts infect “animal” tissue
    • Adults infect human intestines (30 ft long!)
  90. Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

    Trematoda (non-segmented-tapeworms)
    • Larvae infect aquatic animals and plants (snail, clam, fish, crab, aquatic plant)
    • Adult infect humans (liver, lungs, blood vessels)
  91. Nemathelminthes (roundworms)
    Adults have cylindrically shaped bodies
    Tapered on both ends
    Bilateral symmetry
    Organ systems
    Digestive system withmouth and anus
    Reproductive system(male and female)
    Primitive nervous system
    Whipworms (Trichuris trichiura)
    Trichina worms (Trichinella spiralis)
    Hookworms (Necator americanus),
    Pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis),
    Filarids (Wuchereria bancrofti),
    Ascarids (Ascaris lumbricoides)
  92. Which nemathelminthes type is the most common seen worldwide?
  93. Treating Helminth Infections:

    Tapeworm Infections: Intestinal
    • Albendazol (albenza)- inhibits tubulin assembly into microtubules (which interferes with glucose uptake)
    • -inhibits helminth specific fumarate reductase
    • Praziquantel(Biltricide)-increases calcium permeability and decreases adenine uptake
  94. Treating Helminth Infections:

    Tapeworm Infections: Cystic
    Albendazole (albenza)
  95. Treating Helminth Infections:

    Hookworm Infections
    Mebendazole (Vermix)- blocks the uptake of glucose
  96. Treating Helminth Infections:

    Ascarisis (Ascarid Infections)
    Mebendazole, Albendazole
  97. Treating Helminth Infections:

    Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infections)
    • Mebendazole, Albendazole
    • Pyrantel pamoate (for dogs heartworm)-Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent
  98. Which of the following are mechanisms of action for albedazole
    1.Increases calcium permeability
    2.Stimulates glucose uptake
    3.Intakes the aerobic furmarate reducatse pathway
    4.Inhibits microtubule formation
    5.Increases flagella motility
    4.Inhibits microtubule formation
  99. Structure of a Virus
    -lipids (phosphoglyco)-host derived
    -proteins (glyco-)-host and virus derrived
  100. The protein coat of a virus
  101. T/F All viruses have capsids?
    TRUE some are polyhedral, helical, or complex
  102. T/F All Viruses are have envelopes?
    FALSE only some
  103. Virus: Envelope
    Made of lipid (glyco, phospho)- Host derived
    Proteins (glyco)- Host and virus derived
  104. Nucleic Acids of a virus are HIGHLY variable:

    Class 1: ds DNA virus (25)
    • Papilomavirus- HPV
    • Herpesvirus- Herpes
    • Poxvirus- Smallpox
  105. Nucleic Acids of a virus are HIGHLY variable:

    Class II: ss DNA virus (+) (7)
    Parovirus- 5th virus
  106. Nucleic Acids of a virus are HIGHLY variable:

    Class III: ds RNA (8)
  107. Nucleic Acids of a virus are HIGHLY variable:

    Class IV: ss RNA (+) (38)
    • Picornavirus-common cold
    • Togavirus- Rubella
    • Coronavirus -SARS
  108. Nucleic Acids of a virus are HIGHLY variable:

    Class V: ss RNA (-) (11)
    • Paromyxovirus- Measles
    • Orthomyxovirus- Influenza
    • Rhabodvirius- Rabies
  109. Nucleic Acids of a virus are HIGHLY variable:

    Class VI: ssRNA (+) RT (3)
    Retrovirus- HIV (use revertranscriptase)
  110. Nucleic Acids of a virus are HIGHLY variable:

    Class VII: dsDNA RT (2)
    Hepadnavirus- Hepatitis
  111. Life cycle of a virus -DNA virus (HPV, Herpes, small pox)

    1. attachment
    2. penetration and uncoating
    3. viral protein synthesis
    4. maturation and release
  112. Life cycle of a virus -ssRNA (H1N1)
    1. Attachment by a hemogluten
    2. Penetration and Uncoating by a M2 ion channel
    3. RNA Replication by ssRNA: - or antisense strand
    Additional strands are transcribed from mRNA
    4. Strands are incorportated into capsie
    5. Maturation and Release (Neurometase (N1) important for budding)
  113. NOTE: if you are CCR5 you are immune to HIV
  114. Life cycle of a virus- RT virus

    Bind to CD4 receptor on T cells then bind to CCR5 or CXCR4
    Penetrates host cell
    After uncoating, revere transcription of the viral RNA produces dsDNA
    The new viral DNA is transported into the host cell's nucleus and integrated as a provirus.
    Transcription of the provirus may also occur producing RNA for new retrovirus genomes and RNA that codes for the retrovirus capsid and envelope protein
    Mature retrovirus leaves host cell, acquiring an envelope as it buds out
  115. Treating a viral infection: Orthomyxoviruses- Influenza

    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), Zanamivir (Relenza)
    • Neuraminidase inhibitor
    • Prevents budding by interfering of virus
  116. Treating a viral infection: Adamantanes

    Amantadine (Symmetrel), Rimantadine (Flumadine)
    • M2 ion channel blocker
    • Prevents viral uncoating
  117. Treating a viral infection: Retroviruses- HIV

    Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)
  118. Treating a viral infection: Retroviruses- HIV

    INHIBIT Reverse Transcriptase
    • Nucleoside/nucleotide analogues- Lamivudine, Zidovudine (Combivir)
    • RT binding agent- Efavirez (Sustiva)
  119. Treating a viral infection: Retroviruses- HIV

    INHIBIT Maturation (blocks protease inhibitors)
    • Atazanavir (Reyataz)
    • Ritonavir (Norvir)
  120. Protein infections "ions"
  121. Prions:
    PrPC protein
    • Found in most tissues, esp neural
    • Thought to be involved in memory
  122. NO treatments for prions for now
  123. Mad cow disease
    Prion disease- BSE- Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  124. Prions have the same primary structure but different 2, 3, and 4 structure.
    αhelix vs βsheet
    mutation not required
    mutation may be involved
    can impart abnormal conformation
  125. Prions
    Beta Sheet conformation protease insensitive
  126. Prions; Disease

    Kuru- ritual canabolism
    CJD- Creutzfeld Jacob Disease
    GSS- Gerstmann0Straussler-Scheinker syndrome
    FFI- Fatal Familial Insomnia
    BSE- Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy