ABSITE ch 24 breast.txt

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alshada
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3559
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ABSITE ch 24 breast.txt
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2010-01-11 11:03:27
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breast ABSITE
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ABSITE ch 24 breast
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  1. Embryologic origin of breast
    Ectoderm milk streak
  2. Hormone involved in duct development
    Estrogen
  3. Hormone involved in lobular development
    Progesterone
  4. Hormone that synergizes estrogen and progesterone
    Prolactin
  5. Nerve innervating serratus anterior
    Long thoracic
  6. Nerve innervating latissiumus dorsi
    Thoracodorsal
  7. Artery supplying serratus anterior
    Lateral thoracic
  8. Artery supplying latissimus dorsi
    Thoracodorsal
  9. Nerve innervating pec major and minor
    Medial pectoral
  10. Nerve innervating pec major only
    Lateral pectoral
  11. Nerve providing sensation to medial arm and axilla
    Intercostobrachial
  12. Valveless vein plexus that allows direct hematogenous mets of breast cancer to spine
    Batson�s plexus
  13. Most common cancer causing primary axillar lymphadenopathy
    Lymphoma
  14. Suspensory ligaments that divide the breast into segments
    Cooper�s ligaments
  15. Most common organism in breast abscesses
    S. Aureus
  16. Causes of breast abscess in nonpregnant women (4)
    Actinomyces, TB, syphilis, SLE
  17. Breast cyst filled with milk; occurs with breastfeeding
    Galactocele
  18. Drugs that can cause gynecomastia (3)
    Cimetidine, spironolactone, marijuana
  19. Most common breast anomaly
    Accessory nipples
  20. Hypoplasia of chest wall, amastia, hypoplastic shoulder, no pectoralis
    Poland syndrome
  21. Treatment of mastodynia
    Danazol, OCP�s, NSAIDS
  22. Benign cluster of calcifications on mammogram that can look like breast ca
    Sclerosing adenosis
  23. Most common cause of bloody discharge from nipple
    Papilloma
  24. Most common breast lesion in adolescents and young women
    Fibroadenoma
  25. Most common cause of green nipple discharge
    Fibrocystic disease
  26. Types of nipple discharge that are concerning
    Bloody, unilateral, spontaneous
  27. Mammogram with Swiss cheese appearance
    Diffuse papillomatosis
  28. Malignant cells of ductal epithelium without invasion of the basement membrane
    DCIS
  29. Margin needed for DCIS
    2-3mm
  30. most aggressive subtype of DCIS
    comedo pattern
  31. marker for potential future malignancy
    LCIS
  32. Treatment of LCIS
    Nothing, tamoxifen, or bilateral prophylactic mastectomy
  33. Lifetime US breast cancer risk
    12%
  34. minimum size of a detectable mass on mammogram
    5mm
  35. nodes lateral to pectoralis minor muscle
    Level I nodes
  36. Nodes beneath pectoralis minor muscle
    Level II nodes
  37. Nodes medial to pectoralis minor muscle
    Level III nodes
  38. Nodes between pectoralis major and minor
  39. Mammogram score meaning �probably benign finding�; needs short-term followup
  40. Birads 3
  41. Mammogram score meaning �highly suspicious for cancer�
    Birads 5
  42. Mammogram score meaning �biopsy proven cancer�
    Birads 6
  43. Mammogram score meaning benign finding
    Birads 2
  44. Mammogram score meaning no finding/negative
    Birads 1
  45. Mammogram score meaning �indeterminate; needs additional imaging�
    Birads 0
  46. Most important prognostic staging factor in breast cancer
    Nodal status
  47. 5-year survival of breast cancer with 0 positive nodes
    75%
  48. 5-year survival of breast cancer with 1-3 positive nodes
    60%
  49. 5-year survival of breast cancer with 4-10 positive nodes
    40%
  50. most common distant metastasis of breast cancer
    bone
  51. T staging of breast cancer
    T1: <2cm, T2: 2-5cm, T3: >5cm, T4: skin or chest wall involvement
  52. N staging of breast cancer
    N1 ispi axillary, N2 fixed ipsi axillary, N3: ipsi internal mammary nodes
  53. M staging of breast cancer
    Distant mets, including supraclavicular nodes
  54. Strong risk factors for breast cancer (4)
    BRCA gene, >=2 primary relatives w/cancer, previous DCIS, Atypical hyperplasia
  55. Moderate risk factors for breast cancer (6)
    Family hx, early menarche, nulliparity, radiation, previous breast ca, high-fat diet
  56. Gene associated with ovarian, endometrial, and breast ca
    BRCA I
  57. Gene associated with male breast ca and breast ca
    BRCA II
  58. Percentage of breast cancers negative for both estrogen and progesterone
    10%
  59. risk factors for male breast cancer (4)
    steroid use, XRT, family hx, Klinefelter�s
  60. % of breast cancers that are ductal
    85%
  61. % of breast cancers that are lobular
    10%
  62. pathological finding conferring worse prognosis of lobular breast cancer
    Signet ring cells
  63. Dermal lymphartic invasion of breast cancer causing dimpling
    Peau d�orange
  64. Surgical option for breast cancer leaving 1-2% of breast tissue
    Subcutaneous mastectomy
  65. Margin needed for invasive cancer lumpectomy
    1cm
  66. tissues resected in radical mastectomy
    overlying skin, pec major and minor, level I-III nodes
  67. contraindications to XRT following breast cancer resection
    scleroderma, previous XRT, SLE, active rheumatoid arthritis
  68. indications for XRT after mastectomy (7)
    >4 nodes, skin/chest wall involvement, positive margins, tumor >5cm, extracapsular nodal invasion, inflammatory cancer, fixed axillary nodes
  69. chance of local recurrence after lumpectomy
    10%
  70. patients needing chemotherapy
    >1cm and all with positive nodes
  71. patients needing hormonal therapy
    those with ER+ or PR+
  72. risks of tamoxifen (2)
    blood clot, endometrial ca (each 1% risk)
  73. stellate, irregular, speculated mass lesion that is benign
    radial scar
  74. locally invasive spindle cells that mimic breast ca
    fibromatosis
  75. malignant tumors with a benign appearance (3)
    mucinous CA, medullary CA, cystosarcoma phylloides
  76. scaly skin lesion on nipple with DCIS or ductal CA in breast
    Paget�s disease
  77. Tumor resembling giant fibroadenoma; no nodal metastases
    Cystosarcoma phylloides
  78. Lymphangiosarcoma from chronic lymphedema following axillary dissection
    Stewart Treves syndrome

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