Who leads the world in consumer sales on functional foods and dietary supplements
Asprin is form the extracts of what tree?
willow trees (bark), Salix spp.
A chemical compound, salicin, a glycoside, that was first isolated in the 19th century.
Rev. Edmund Stone used willow for the treatment of fever and chills during the 18th century.
What was salicin initially used for?
rheumatic fever, gout, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteoarthritis. (control pain, side effects: stomach cramps)
Aspirin was discovered by
Felix Hoffman in 1898 a chemist in Bayer company. His father suffered from arthritis and stomach problems.
Aspirin is valued for its three classic properties:
Antipyretic - Fever reducer
Analgesic – Pain-relieving
Where does the name asprin come from?
The name aspirin is based on “a” for acetylsalicylic acid and “sprin” for Spirea another plant source.
from Pacific Yew plant (from bark) Taxus brevifolia, a conifer (cone bearing plant- gymnosperm) – need tree to be 100+ yrs old(natural source). Almost went extinct, now making in the lab. Taxol is an anticancer drug.
from sweet clover Melilotus spp.
Chemical compound is Coumadin that has anticoagulant activity. – Thins the blood. Cannot eat vit. K
Warfarin is used to prevent blood clots. Usually prescribed for people who have suffered a heart attack and stroke.
from Rosy periwinkle Catharanthus roseus – from Madagascar islands.
Vincristine and Vinblastine are the chemical compounds extracted from the leaves.
Used for the treatment of childhood leukemia, Hodgkin’s disease, lymphoma, breast cancer, sarcoma and more.
from Chinese Artemisia (Wormwood)
Used to treat cerebral Malaria.
Chemical compound is artemisinin
the 1st malaria drug, gave quinine (chemical compound) – lots of side effects: depression, miscarriages and tetanus.
How do we actually prove that a herbal product is actually effective?
1. Traditional use of a medicinal plant
2. Plausible anecdotes
3. Pharmacological studies
4. Observational studies
5. Clinical studies
Phase I trials
Phase II trials
Phase III trials
Phase I trials (Preclinical)
relatively few healthy people (<12) to determine the best dosage form and safe dose.
Phase II trials (preclinical)
are done in a large number of patients to test the efficacy and to evaluate
Phase III trials (preclinical)
are done on a relatively large number of patients to test the new drug against their
current standard treatment.
is the procedure that ensures safety and efficacy of phytomedicines by careful checking:
The correct identity of the active ingredients – herbs or extracts
The correct therapeutic concentrations or doses of the active ingredients
The purity and hygiene of the product (no undesirable contaminants
Raw materials or finished product have to be free from adulterants – may dilute or modify reaction.
ensures that all batches contain the same specified concentration of the active chemical compounds.
Clinical trials are required by the regulatory authorities before a new phytomedicine can be registered.
is the science that deals with the identification of medicinal plants and drugs.
above the ground (bark only in mature plants)
below the ground
Harpagophytum procumbens (Devils Claw)
The common name was based on its peculiar fruit shape.
Dried, sliced toots are used to reduce low back pain and inflammation.
Widely used in Europe for mild joint pain. Helps with digestion. Taken internally as a tonic.
Harpagoside - glycoside
Fatty oilis comes from the
essential oil come from
leaves/flowers (evaporate and give off aroma.)
crude mixtures of chemical compounds
2 or more plants
infusions, brews from leaves or from powder.
alcoholic (ethanol) solution
fatty oils or waxes mixed with medicinal extracts; external use
made by binding powders or powdered extracts
small containers with medicinal products (gelatin container)
compressed powdered material, uncoated
semisolid preparations in small proportions
tablet-like – intended for chewing
intended for inserting; rare for herbal products
semisolid preparations meant for external application
A plant that is safely consumed as a tea may be totally unsuitable for human use as a tincture. Why?
The alcohol (ethanol) is used in tincture preparation.
Ethanol may dissolve toxic substances that would not be present in a tea.
Pure chemical extracts are injected directly into the muscles or bloodstream.