Microbiology Unit 1

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Microbiology Unit 1
2010-09-18 21:04:05

Exam 1 Review
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  1. Who is considered the father of microbiology?
    Anton von Leeuenhoek?
  2. Who is considered the father of Epidemiology when he tracked an outbreak of Cholera?
    John Snow, London, 1853
  3. Who wondered if diseases were caused by microorgansims and introduced antiseptic techniques into surgical methods?
    Joseph Lister
  4. First person to isolate a causative agent of an infections disease
    Robert Koch
  5. First to treat syphilis with Salvarasan; introduced concept of chemotherapy
    Paul Ehrlich
  6. Created vaccination using idea that milkmaids never got cow pox because they were exposed to it and therefore introduced the idea of vaccination.
    Edward Jenner
  7. Debunked theory of Spontaneous Generation
    Introduced concept of "diseases" in wine/beer caused by microorganisms
    Louis Pasteur
  8. Discovered heat resistant spores, a dormant form of life which is very heat stable
    John Tyndall
  9. First to isolate a filterable agent that goes through filters which causes diseases; One of two fathers of virology
    Dimitri Ivanowski
  10. Discovered penicillium by accident on a plate that he was studying which was killing bacteria
    Alexander Fleming
  11. Microbiology is the study of......
    microscopic organisms and viruses and thier roles in human disease as well as beneficial processes
  12. What is a strain?
    • Specific subgrouping of the species that is different from other subgroups of the species in some way.
    • Ex:
    • E coli -- normally harmless in our intestines
    • E coli H7:O157 -- specific strain that is harmful and can kill
  13. What is an organism?
    A living thing with metabolic activity and is capable of self-reproduction
  14. Non-living
    Acellular (no cells). Ex: viruses
  15. Pasteurization
    Process of gentle heating to inactivate contaminating microbes
  16. Swann neck flask
    flask with a narrow opening which was boiled to sterilize and then neck bent. Air gasses allowed to pass through but dust particles could not get in
  17. Hay infusion
    Used by John Tyndall and Louis Pasteur in the lab; discovered that they had heat resistant spores
  18. Cell
    The basic smallest functional unit of any living organism; living; capable of dividing and becoming two cells; has metabolic activity
  19. Species
    A group of repoductively isolated individuals that tend to only mate within that group
  20. Self reproduction
    Reproduction w/out external assistance. Will make another organism that will eventually become like it.
  21. Sexual Reproduction
    Two types of organisms come together to produce another organism like themselves (plants and animals)
  22. Asexual Reproduction
    Producing more of itself without help of any other organism (bacteria)
  23. serotype
    • describes a strain, its antibody. "Grouping with antibodies". Usually characterized by the antibodies they react with.
    • EX: E. coli H7:O157 reacts w/ anitbody 7 in panel H and antibody 157 in panel O (O-antigen)
  24. Eukaryotic
    Having cellular structures enclosed by membranes. "Eu" means true. Karyote = nucleus.
  25. Prokaryotic
    No distinguishable membraneous stuctures. "Pro" means before
  26. Macromolecule
    • Very large compounds:
    • 1. proteins
    • 2. sugars
    • 3. nucleic acids
    • 4. lipids
  27. Vitamin
    organic cofactor that cannot be made by the cell that requires them Ex. humans need calcium.
  28. cofactor
    • Not a macromolecule; often organic.
    • Required for specific function to occur in cell
  29. Nucleic Acid
    Polymers of nucleotides that store and transfer genetic information within a cell
  30. Polymer
    • formed by combining smaller molecules into larger ones
    • means many
  31. Nucleotides
    • DNA & RNA
    • Compounds composed of nitrogenous base linked to a ribose or deoxyribose which in turn are linked to a phosphate
  32. Nitrogenous Base
    • Nitrogen containing compound used for making nucleotides to build DNA and RNA; there are 5 kinds:
    • 1. Cytosine
    • 2. Thymine (only in DNA)
    • 3. Adenine
    • 4. Guanine
    • 5. Uracil (only in RNA)
  33. Gene
    • DNA code that will result in the making of a protein or functional unit of RNA
    • specific unit of information
  34. DNA
    • made up of nucleotides that contain deoxyribose
    • long strand of nucleotides
    • contains many different genes
  35. RNA
    • nucleotides which contain ribose
    • single strand
  36. messenger RNA
    RNA transcriptase containing the information needed for synthesizing a specific polypeptide; brings the message
  37. transfer RNA
    • decoders of the messenger RNA
    • takes the code in the messenger RNA and tells the ribosome what amino acid that code represents
  38. ribosomal DNA
    RNA trascript that forms part of the ribosomes structure.
  39. Ribosome
    • special enzymes in the cell made up of protein and RNA
    • translates RNA into protein
  40. Carbohydrate
    • organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen (sometimes other elements)
    • serve as: building blocks for other macromolecules
    • storage compounds
    • modify function of proteins
    • "added water to carbon"
  41. saccharide
    • sugar
    • mono = one
    • di= two
    • tri= three
    • poly=many
  42. simple sugars
  43. complex sugars
    • disaccharides, trisaccharides, and polysaccharides
    • single sugars linked together
  44. Proteins
    macromolecules made up of amino acids
  45. amino acid
    small compound made by linking an amino group to a carbon and then attaching acid group
  46. peptide
    a chain of two or more amino acids
  47. Peptide Bond
    Formed by joining one amino acid to the next
  48. Structural protein
    • Proteins that make up tendons, give cell shape
    • building blocks (ie keratin in hair)
  49. Carrier Proteins
    transport proteins of the cells and body
  50. Regulatory proteins
    help control activity of the cell
  51. Enzymes
    • workers of the cell
    • build things by putting compounds together or break things down
  52. motor proteins
    • bind to the cytoskeleton and move things along
    • sometimes double as motor and carrier proteins
  53. Storage proteins
    • serve as nutrient stores
    • amino acids in reserves
    • Ex: ovalbumin in eggs, casein in breast milk
  54. Lipids
    • large, non-polar, organic molecules
    • do not dissolve easily in water
  55. Non polar
    chemical term meaning the molecule has an even dist'n of electric charge
  56. Fats
    • complex organic molecules that are combinations of fatty acids and gylcerol
    • energy storage
  57. Hydrophobic
    repels water
  58. Fatty Acids
    long chains of carbon and hydrogen that end w/ a carbon with two oxygens attached
  59. Phospholipids
    • two long carbon chains (16-18) carbons each connected to a glycerol connected to highly charged phospate group
    • hydrophilic on one side, hydrophobic on the other side
    • forms membranes around cells
  60. Steroids
    • made of interlocking rings of carbon
    • function in body as steroids and hormones
    • Ex: cholesterol, estrogen, testosterone
  61. Why is microbiology important for life?
    • Recycling: nature needs to reuse everything that it makes
    • Agrigculture: Nitrogen Fixation - nitrogen is 80% of the air we breathe. Nitrogen fixing bacteria must fix nitrogen into a
    • biologically available form
    • Food Products: Beer, wine, yogurt, cheese, sour cream, bread, etc.
    • Industrial: Pectinases - fruit juices, proteinases- curing leather, plastic production, food additives, dietary supplements,
    • amino acids, vitamin, etc
  62. What are Koch's posulates?
    • 1. The organism must be present in every case of the disease
    • 2. The organism must be isolated from the dieseased host and grow in pure culture
    • 3. The disease must reproduce when a pure culture of the organism is innoculated into a healthy suceptible host.
    • 4. The organism must be recoverable from the experimentally infected host.
  63. What are the 6 kingdoms of life?
    • 1. Animalia
    • 2. Plantae
    • 3. Fungi
    • 4. Protista
    • 5. Eubacteria
    • 6. Archaebacteria
  64. What are the 2 groups of non-living organisms?
    • 1. Viruses, satellite viruses, viroids
    • 2. Prions
  65. What are the three domains of life?
    • Archae
    • Eubacteria
    • Eukayra
  66. What are 2 factors that distinguish the living from the non living?
    • 1. They do not have cells
    • 2. They do not reproduce
  67. How are organisms named?
    • By genus and species and italicized
    • Ex:
    • Escherichia coli
    • Bacillus subtilis
    • Homo sapiens
    • Non-living are not italicized
  68. How is DNA transcribed into RNA and translated into protein?
    The DNA has to be copied into messenger RNA. The mRNA then goes to the ribosome where it is decoded by the tRNA and the ribosome joins the appropriate amino acids together to make a protein.
  69. What are the six kinds of proteins?
    • 1. Structural - make up tendons; give the cell shape; "bricks"
    • 2. Regulator - control activity of the cell
    • 3. Carrier - trasport proteins
    • 4. Enzymes - "workers of the cell"; build things and break them down
    • 5. Motor - move things along; bind to cytoskeleton
    • 6. Storage - nutrient stores; amino acids in reserve
  70. What is the function of carbohydrates?
    • 1. They serve as the building blocks for other macromolecules (DNA, RNA, some amino acids)
    • 2. They serve as storage compounds
    • 3. They modify the function of proteins