Embryology

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sweetpea281
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35605
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Embryology
Updated:
2010-09-19 12:20:49
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chapter4
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development of the face and neck
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  1. when does the development of the face and neck begin?
    week 4 of the prenatal period (embryonic period)
  2. All arches and processes are formed with ______ on the outside, ______ in the middle, and ______ on the inside.
    ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
  3. what are placodes and what process do they form with?
    • thickened ectoderm that will develop into sensory organs
    • Frontonasal process
  4. what are the three types of placodes and what are they?
    • lens placodes-future eyes, will migrate mesially
    • otic placodes: future ears
    • nasal placodes: future nose and olfactory cells
  5. what three major parts are created in the nose and paranasal sinus formation?
    • nasal pits
    • medial nasal processes
    • lateral nasal processes
  6. how are the nasal pits created, what will it become?
    Nasal placodes submerge and create the nasal pits, become the nasal cavity.
  7. As the nasal cavity (nasal pits) deepen what develops and where are they developing?
    • superior, middle and inferior nasal conchae
    • lateral walls of nasal cavity
  8. what is the medial nasal processes and where is it located?
    • Bilateral crescent shaped tissues
    • between the two nasal pits
  9. what will the medial nasal processes form (externally and internally)?
    • fuse externally to form the middle portion of the nose
    • fuse internally to form the intermaxillary segment
  10. what does the intermaxillary segment give rise to?
    • maxillary incisors
    • primary palate
  11. what is the lateral nasal processes?
    bilateral crescent shaped tissues lateral to each nasal cavity
  12. what do the lateral nasal processes fuse to become?
    alae of the nose
  13. what three major things develop in the maxillary processes?
    • upper and labial commisure
    • nasolacrimal groove
  14. what fuse together in the upper and labial commissure formation?
    medial nasal processes fuse with bilateral maxillary processes. maxillary processes fuse with mandibular processes to form the labial commisures
  15. what is a cleft lip?
    failure of fusion between maxillary and medial nasal processes, it can be bilateral or unilateral.
  16. is it more common for boys or girls to have a cleft lip?
    boys
  17. the nasolacrimal groom forms from what fusions and what does it give rise to?
    • forms from the fusion of the maxillary processes and the lateral nasal processes
    • gives rise to the nasolacrimal duct.
  18. what happens during the stomodeum and oral cavity formation?
    the oropharyngeal membrane disintegrates and opens into the primitive pharynx
  19. what is the stomodeum and what is it initially sealed off by?
    • primitive mouth
    • oropharyngeal membrane
  20. what is the primitive pharynx?
    beginning of the digestive system
  21. what is the mandibular arch and lower face formation called?
    first branchial arch
  22. what is the first to form?
    stomodeum
  23. what is the first arch to form?
    first branchial arch (mandibular arch)
  24. what forms in the first branchial arch?
    • mandibular processes
    • meckel's cartilage
  25. where does the mandibular processes form?
    form inferior to the stomodeum
  26. where do the mandibular processes fuse and what do they become?
    fuse in the middle to become the mandibular arch
  27. what is the mandibulasr symphysis?
    faint line where the mandibular processes fuse.
  28. what is the meckel's cartilage?
    cartilage that forms within each side of the mandibular arch
  29. what does the meckel's cartilage give rise to?
    malleus and incus
  30. what is the perichondrium and what does it give rise to?
    • cartilage surrounding Meckel's Cartilage
    • temporomandibular ligaments
  31. when is the development of the neck taking place?
    parallels the development of the face. Week 4
  32. what forms the development of the neck?
    branchial or pharyngeal arches
  33. what does branchial mean?
    gills
  34. What is the branchial groove?
    wedgie between the first branchial arch and the secon branchial arch
  35. what is the cartilage associated with the second branchial arch and where does it form?
    reichert's cartilage, within each side of the arch
  36. what is the branchial arch also called?
    hyoid arch
  37. what are the branchial arches of the neck?
    • second branchial arch (hyoid arch)
    • third branchial arch
    • fourth/sixth arch
  38. what are the pharyngeal pouches? where are they located?
    • first, second and third/fourth pharyngeal pouches
    • back side of arches (back of archie)
  39. what are the parts of the frontonasal process?
    medial nasal process and lateral nasal process
  40. what does the frontonasal process give rise to?
    • upper face
    • forehead
    • bridge of nose
    • nasal septum
  41. what does the medial nasal process give rise to?
    • middle portion of the nose
    • intermaxillary segment- maxillary incisors
    • primary palate
  42. what does the lateral nasal process give rise to?
    ala of nose
  43. what does the maxillary process give rise to?
    • midface
    • sides of upper lip
    • cheeks
    • secondary palate
    • posterior portion of maxilla with teeth
    • maxillary canines
    • zygomatic bone
    • portions of the temporal bone
  44. what does the mandibular arch (first branchial arch) give rise to?
    • lower face
    • lower lip
    • mandible with teeth
    • trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V)
    • muscles of mastication
  45. what does the meckel's cartilage give rise to?
    • malleus
    • incus
  46. what does the periochondrium around the meckel's cartilage give rise to?
    temporomandibular ligaments
  47. what does the branchial groove give rise to?
    eardrum
  48. what does the hyoid arch (second branchial arch) give rise to?
    • muscles of facial expression
    • suprahyoid muscles
    • facial nerve (cranial nerve VII)
  49. what does the reichert's cartilage give rise to?
    • stapes
    • styloid process
    • upper portion of hyoid bone
  50. what does the perichondrium around the reichert's cartilage give rise to?
    ligaments of the hyoid bone
  51. what does the third branchial arch give rise to?
    pharyngeal muscle
  52. what doe the unnamed cartilage of the third branchial arch give rise to
    lower portion of hyoid bone
  53. what does the fourth/sixth branchial arch give rise to?
    muscles of larynx and pharynx
  54. what are the internal primitive structures?
    first second and third/fourth pharyngeal pouches
  55. what does the first pharyngeal pouch give rise to?
    auditory tubes
  56. what does the second pharyngeal arch give rise to?
    palatine tonsils
  57. what does the third/fourth pharyngeal pouch give rise to?
    • parathyroid gland
    • thymus gland
  58. what are the external primitive structures?
    • frontonasal process
    • maxillary process
    • mandibular arch (first branchial arch)
    • branchial groove
    • second branchial arch (hyoid arch)
    • third branchial arch
    • fourth/sixth branchial arch

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