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We except the transfer of power till we peacefully except it. ex. Bush vs. Gore election 2000
Jim crow laws (poll tax, grandfather clause, literacy test)
- -Were state and local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965. They mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans. Some examples of Jim Crow laws are the segregation of public schools, public places and public transportation, and the segregation of restrooms, restaurants and drinking fountains for whites and blacks.
- -Discriminatory tax that is a pre-condition of the exercise of the ability to vote. After the ability to vote was extended to all races by the enactment of the Fifteenth Amendment, many Southern states enacted poll tax laws which often included a grandfather clause that allowed any adult male whose father or grandfather had voted in a specific year prior to the abolition of slavery to vote without paying the tax.
- -The original grandfather clause concept arose during the segregationist Jim Crow period following the Civil War. In an effort to discourage African-Americans from voting, laws were enacted in certain southern states which restricted voting rights to those who could prove an ancestor had legally voted before 1857. Since slaves could not legally vote before the Civil War years, their descendants were also deemed ineligible. Jim Crow voting lawswere eventually struck down, but the idea of a grandfather clause remained.
- -As used by the states, the literacy test gained infamy as a means for denying suffrage to African-Americans. Adopted by a number of southern states, the literacy test was applied in a patently unfair manner, as it was used to disfranchise many literate blacks while allowing many illiterate whites to vote. This was accomplished by making the test inordinately difficult and allowing test-givers to choose who had to take the test and who did not.
The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits each government in the United States from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude" (i.e., slavery). It was ratified on February 3, 1870.The Fifteenth Amendment is one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
The Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution established direct election of United States Senators by popular vote. The amendment supersedes Article I, § 3, Clauses 1 and 2 of the Constitution, under which Senators were elected by state legislatures. It also alters the procedure for filling vacancies in the Senate, to be consistent with the method of election. It was adopted on April 8, 1913.
The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits each state and the federal government from denying any citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920.
The Twenty-fourth Amendment prohibits both Congress and the states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment of a poll tax or other types of tax. The amendment was proposed by Congress to the states on August 27, 1962, and was ratified by the states on January 23, 1964. [ended the poll tax!]
The Twenty-sixth Amendment to the United States Constitution standardized the voting age to 18. It was adopted in response to student activism against the Vietnam War and to partially overrule the Supreme Court's decision in Oregon v. Mitchell. It was adopted on July 1, 1971.
McGovern-Frasier commissions (super-delegates)
- it had mandate to try to make democratic party conventions more representative, delegates can not be hand picks and everyone can participate.
- The McGovern-Fraser Commission, formally known as Commission on Party Structure and Delegate Selection  was a commission created in response to the tumultuous 1968 Democratic National Convention. Soon after Richard Nixon's electoral victory, the 28-member commission was selected by Senator Fred R. Harris, who was then the Chairman of theDemocratic National Committee. Senator George McGovern and later Representative Donald M. Fraser chaired the commission, which is how the commission received its name.McGovern resigned from the commission in 1971 in order to run for president, but would eventually lose the election.
- -"Superdelegate" is an informal term commonly used for some of the delegates to the Democratic National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the United States Democratic Party.Unlike most convention delegates, the superdelegates are not selected based on the party primaries and caucuses in each U.S. state, in which voters choose among candidates for the party's presidential nomination. Instead, most of the superdelegates are seated automatically, based solely on their status as current or former party leaders and elected officials ("PLEOs"). Others are chosen during the primary season. All the superdelegates are free to support any candidate for the nomination.
Gerrymandering is a form of boundary delimitation (redistricting) in which electoral district or constituency boundaries are deliberately modified for electoral purposes, thereby producing a contorted or unusual shape. The resulting district is known as a gerrymander; however, that word can also refer to the process.Gerrymandering may be used to achieve desired electoral results for a particular party, or may be used to help or hinder a particular group ofconstituents, such as a political, racial, linguistic, religious or class group.
roles and responsibilities of political parties
- a broad coalition that attempts to gain control of government by winning electionsWhat do they do?Recruit and Label-Act as Watchdog-Provide Information-Run the Government-Nominate-
- parties pick candidates, parties run campaigns, parties give cues to voters, parties articulate policies, parties coordinate policymaking
roles and types of minor political parties
-Since 1860, 3rd parties receive less than 1 out of every 20 votes cast-Republican Party (Lincoln) stands as only third party to ever win the Presidency-Only five 3rd party candidates ever received more than 10% of vote (Perot 19%)-If a 3rd party receives 5% of the national popular vote, they are eligible formatching federal funds for their campaign and they automatically appear on theballot.Types: Roles: -A) Single-issue 1) Spoiler/Influence Elections -B) Ideological 2) Force Issues to be addressed -C) Splinter 3) Provide Another Option
structure of political parties (local, state, national)
- -Local:-Party Machine & Patronage Systems of the 1930’s, replaced by business modelPrecincts- voting districts w/up to 1,000 voters, who vote at the same polling placeWard- several smaller precincts form a larger voting district (captains for each)County Committee- reps from each ward then select chairmen to represent interests
- -State:-State Central Committee; made up of chairpersons from county committees whoselect slate of candidates for State government positionsFederal & incumbent endorsements play a key role in the process (Senators, Reps)(Governor, Attorney General, Secretaries of State, Education, & Treasury)
- - Who controls the National Party?The PresidentThe Party Chairman (DNC- H. Dean & RNC- K. Melhman)- raise $$$, promoteHighest Ranking elected officialNational Committee runs the party between elections w/ (State reps) assistanceIndependent Campaign Committees- aid party in keeping/seeking majority power
political party eras (history)
- Political parties in the United Stateshave existed in “eras,” or historicalperiods of dominance and strongperformance.
- - During these eras, the party in controltended to dominate not only the policyagenda but also the policy-makinginstitutions.
- -This dominance often had a hugepolitical and historical impact.
1796-1824: First Party System
- G. Washington warned of “baneful effects ofthe spirit of the party” in farewell address
- -Federalists- America’s first political party
- -Faded after 1800, gone by 1820
- -Dem-Republicans- led by T. Jefferson
- -Arose to support farming interests in South
- -Factionalism would lead to their demise
Jackson’s Democrats v. Whigs
- -Comes to office as people’s hero from 1824
- -Removes land owning requirement to vote(allows common man to join political process)
- -Honors patronage system in politicalappointments & begins to establish grassrootsmodel of political party
- -Whigs were truly loyal opposition to Jackson
- -Harrison & Taylor only Whig Presidents
- -2-party system is born out of critical partyrealignment during election of 1824
1860-1928: Republican Era
- - Dems and Whigs still split on slavery issue
- -Lincoln & Republican party emerges onsingle-issue of slavery (creates coalition)
- -Critical party alignment takes place as G.O.P.wins in 1860 & holds until 1910 (1884, 1892)
- -Election of 1896-critical party alignment Progressive Era (1900-1920’s)- saw politicalreforms; 17th & 19th amendments, directprimaries all changed the political landscape
1932-1964- Coalition Gov’t
- -Party Coalitions support specific partyand usually remain loyal voting block
- -FDR uses various coalitions to win andmaintain prez during “New Deal” era
- -Unions, African-Americans, poor,intellectuals, southerners, etc.
- -Addressed era of federal governmentassistance in economic and social issues
1968-2010- Divided Gov’t
- - Divided legislative & executive have ledto policy gridlock in key areas
- -Every President lost congressional seatsduring every midterm election in era(except Bush-2002…why?)
- -Same pattern exists on local and statelevels of government during this era
- -TEA Party Movement arises out ofdiscontent with major political parties
party re & de- alignment
- Realignment is a rare event in american political life where there is a political revolution associated with crisis. ex. republican result of civil war, great depression 1930, democrats overthrew the republican party
- De-alignment is people are gradually moving away from both parties
the belief that your vote matters, its a voter characteristic
characteristics of political campaignes
- 1) Campaign Manager-
- 2) Fundraiser(s)- all campaigns live or die based on the amount of money in the “war chests.” Travel, especially in a presidential campaign is costly… thus stressing the importance of primary season.
- 3) Exploratory Committee- created to “officially” see if there is enough public interest for the candidate to launch their campaign…Deciding to run phase…
- 4) Counsel- the need for legal representation has proven to be more relevant and necessary as press scrutiny of potential candidates has increased over time.
- 5) Media/Campaign Consultants- the people responsible for getting the candidate (s) elected. They craft the “message” and devise the strategy for the campaign. ex. election of 2008 Obama
- 6) Staff/Volunteers- they don't cost money, the talk to people about you
- 7) Research staff & Policy Advisors- help advise the candidate on “wedge issues” or “swing voters.”
- 8) Pollster(s)- crucial to every campaign and responsible for getting public feedback about the status of the campaign.
- 9) Press Secretary-
Goals of any political campaign
- 1) Activation- move the potential voter to be involved because the current situation isn’t working. Stress failures and problems with the incumbent.
- 2) Reinforcement- stress a message, the physical and verbal act of “campaigning”, introducing voters to the campaign, and their ideas.
- 3) Conversion- potential voter decides to support specific message andgive their vote to the candidate.
voter registration: residency & us citizenship required to vote
- permanent registration- a voter registers once in his district
- absentee ballot- makes it difficult to vote, when you vote for your district while living somewhere else and not having residency (college, military, religious reasons, ect)
- periodic registration- a voter registers once a year or with change of address
- North Dakota- only state without registration procedures & Oregon votes by mail entirely
low vote turnout ( ballot fatigue, absentee ballots, ect)
- lower voter turnout rate do to ballot fatigue
- -ballot fatigue is where there are too many options on the ballot to vote for so people are overwhelmed and don't vote
- -weekday non holiday voting is busy and cant vote
- weak options/ political parties where everyone sucks so don't vote/ don't like the options
- apathy is to lazy
frontloading (super Tuesday, super duper Tuesday)
- frontloading- the tendency of states to hold primary's early in the calender to capitalize on media attention, if a state has a late primary then it will be irrelevant cuz a candidate will already be picked
- Super Tuesday, in general, refers to the Tuesday in February or March of a presidential election year when the greatest number of states hold primary elections to select delegates to national conventions at which each party'spresidential candidates are officially nominated.
- super duper Tuesday was February 5, 2008, the day on which the largest simultaneous number of state U.S. presidential primary elections in the history of U.S. primaries were held.
when an elected nominee runs for president
presidential primary elections
is when voters go to the poles and vote for a candidate or delegates pledged to that candidate
any qualified voter may participate in whichever party’s primary you want to vote in….choose on election day…
most common method, requires that you be a registered member of the party in order to vote in the primary
voter gets ballot with list of candidates for office from both parties and chooses on an office-to-office basis (CA, AK, WA)
A traditional method of selecting candidates through private meetings of party members only. Rarely used in local and state elections, but still very important during Presidential elections, Iowa’s caucus (JAN 5TH) is first stop on the Presidential Election Campaign Tour. No state may hold a caucus or primary before Iowa’s Caucus.
national political party conventions (dems & gop) platforms
- Consequences of Party Reform …..National conventions survive primarily as spectacle ……. (infomercial)Deals have already been cut; candidates have been chosen……. good or bad?
- its every 4 years to choose a presidential candidate and write the parties platform
- the platform is their statement of its goals and policies its with the party believes in
electoral college (# of votes, # needed to win, electors)
- The Electoral College consists of the popularly elected representatives (electors) who formally elect the President andVice President of the United States.
- The number of electoral votes allotted to each State corresponds to the number of Representatives and Senators
- 270 votes needed to win
Federal election campaign act (FECA)
- FECA- The Federal Election Campaign Act is the 1971 law enacted by Congress which created modern campaign
- finance rules and reform. The law was intended t replace the old and widely ineffective and ignored Federal
- Corrupt Practices Act of 1925.
Federal election commission (FEC)
- created by FECA
- Federal Election Commission- The agency to monitor compliance with federal election laws. The FEC’s power has also been shaped and influenced tremendously by the US Supreme Court in three landmark court cases;
- Buckley vs. Valeo (1973),
- McConnell v.F.E.C. (2004),
- United Citizens v. U.S. (2010).
Candidates and PACs disclose their contributions and expenditures to the FEC.
The six FEC commissioners are appointed by the President and have traditionally been split 3-3 between Republicans and Democrats. = gridlock
Campaign finance reform act (BCRA)
aka McCain-Feingold Act
(BCRA)- Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act 2002
- 1) A ban on unrestricted (“soft money”) donations made directly to political parties and on the solicitation of
- those donations by elected officials. 2) Limits on the advertising that unions, corporations, and non-profit
- organizations can engage in up to 60 days prior to an election.
- Ban soft $ & cands must raise hard $ contributions
- soft $- The legislation prohibits the large, unlimited contributions by corporations, unions, and individuals
- to national political parties. State and local parties can accept up to $10,000 per individual for get-out-the-vote
- and voter-registration efforts and national parties can receive $25,000.
- Hard $-(Direct contributions to candidates/campaigns)- increases contributions individuals can make to a total
- $95,000 & individuals may contribute directly to candidates to $2,000 each election,
- Issue Advertising- The legislation prohibits unions, corporations, and nonprofit groups from paying for broadcast
- advertisements if the ads refer to a specific candidate and run within 60 days of a general election or 30 days
- before a primary. These ads may only be financed by hard money.
- encouraged ppl to give to party committees
- contributions not subject to the FEC limits
- $ to candidate is restricted - $ to party is not
- given for "party building" so its given to party
- party building can be nething so it can be used for ads thus indirectly helping cand
- the ads cant be for a candidate bt they can degrade and attempt to delegitimizes his opponent
- "paid for by the Democratic National Party"
- individual contributions to campaigns
- limit is 2,000
- are subject to FEC limit
- 25,000 is limit for all candidates
Buckley vs Valeo
- eliminated fed funding restrictions b/c free speech
- prez can use his $ to help his campiagn
- it limited spending
- basic ground rules of current Presidential campaign financing
- 2 yrs later it said that restrictions were unconstitutional
- it ruled that limits on Congressional campaign spending violated the First Amendment’s “free speech”
- guarantee. If a candidate needed to spend money to get his message out, the justices reasoned limiting the
- amount he could spend also restricted the amount he could say.
- As for Presidential races, the Court
- ruled, candidates could be held to spending limits but only if they had agreed to accept public funding.
mcConnel vs FEC
- 1) Does the “soft money” ban of the BCRA exceed
- Congressional authority to regulate elections under Article 1, Section 4 of the U.S. Constitution and/ or
- violate the 1st Amendment’s protection of the freedom of speech? & 2) Do regulations of the source,
- content, or timing of political advertising in the BCRA violate the 1st Amendment’s free speech clause? In a
- 5-4 ruling the court upheld the challenged provisions of the BCRA thus ruling in favor the F.E.C.
US citizen vs FEC
- Citizens United was a co that relased Hillary: The Movie ("The Movie").documentary released on hillary clinton - is she good for prez?
- falls within the definition of "electioneering communications" (ads) under the "BCRA"
- ruled for corporations cant be limited from spending $ as long as they dnt give it directly to candidate
- overturned years of reform
- does corporate prohibition on "electioneering communications" apply to a documentary
- ruled that corporations cannot be limited in any way from spending money
- on campaigns as long as they don't give the money directly to the candidate.
Loopholes of campaign financing
1. Bundling- The practice of combining several small contributions into one large contribution. a corporation’s executives and their families, and the checks are sent to a candidate, all together in a large “bundle” to give the same impact as one big check
2. Inaugural Committee- give as much as u want to cand once they win. While contributions to campaigns are subject to federal limits, donations to pay for a winner’s inaugural are not. Inaugural committees do not have to publicly identify their contributors.
- 3. Independent Expenditures- Money spend on behalf of a candidate by its citizens not affiliated with his
- campaign. you can give as much as you want to a political group as long as that group’s spending is
- not officially coordinated with a campaign. In 1988, the television ad which tire Democratic nominee Michael
- Dukakis to the parole of convicted murderer and rapist Willie Horton—one of the most effective and memorable of the campaign funded by independent expedenture by a group of Republican consultants.
- 4. Legal Defense Funds- Some politicians have established funds to help raise money to pay for their legal
- 5. PACs (Political Action Committees)- Groups which raise money to donate to political candidates.
- formed a PAC to get around the ban on contributions from labor unions.
- a PAC may give no more than $5,000 to a federal candidate during the primaries, and another $5,000 during the general election.
- 6. Leadership PACs- Several politicians have found ostensibly independent PACs which have been criticized as
- fronts from their own campaign fund-raising. Hillary Clinton immediately after being elected as Senator set up her
- controversial PAC called HILLPAC.
- 7. 527 Committees- Developed after the BCRA was passed to allow campaign contributions to be used effectively
- against a candidate without any official coordination with the campaign. John Kerry’s “Swiftboat Veterans for
- Truth” and Barack Obama’s “Rev. Jeremiah Wright” are good examples of the recent use of this method.
- 527 Committees = named after the section of the IRS code that gives them tax exempt status
- no limits on fundraising or spending for issue-oriented ads and voter registration
- avoids the gift tax that applies to large corporations
- contributions cannot claim a tax deduction for donations
- not required to reveal identities of donations
- applies to any group that expresses views on political issues and candidates through TV ads or other means
raise $ from special interests and make contributions to political campaign on behalf on interest groups
- an electoral "earthquake" where new issues emerge
- new coalitions replace old ones
- majority party replaced by minority party (party realignment)
- marked by national crisis
- requires more than one election to bring about a new party era
- indivdiual contribution limit 2000
- show names of contributors and list expedentures
- coporations arent limited
- PACs 5000 limit
- prez can use his $
matching fed funding for presidential election
- cands who dont take matching funds can spend as much as they like
- if a candidate agrees to fed funding they can only raise the equal amount of the funding and nothing more
- fed gov will match the first 250$ of each contribution