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ALL changes name to what in the subcranial region
the atlanto-axial ligament
where is ALL present?
C-spine to sacrum
attachments/function of ALL
attaches firmly to bodies/loosely to intervertebral discs. Resists spine over-extension and Lordosis
PLL present where?
C-spine to coccyx
appearance of PLL? name change?
serrated. narrower on bodies and wider at discs. Changes name to tectorial membrane in sub cranial.
where would herniation most often occur?
lateral intervertebral disc PLL attachments (annulus fibrosis is thinnest here)
function of PLL?
resists spine flexion
Ligamentum flavum composition/function
composed mostly of elastic fibers (the yellow ligament) 20% collagen. since it joins adjacent lamina it will resist forward flexion between laminae
between spinous processes, also limits spinal flexion. poorly developed in c-spine as lig nuchae takes over
limits contralateral SB, most highly developed in T-spine
ant. atlanto-axial membrane
connects C1 to ant. occiput, resists subcranial backward nodding, continuous with ALL
continuous w/ ALL, connects post. body of C2 to anterior inner occiput. covers trans. cerv. and alar ligaments. resists subcranial forward nodding
posterior atlanto-axial membrane
connects post. arch of C1 to occiput. continuation of lig. flav. Resists subcranial forward nodding
atlantal cruciform ligament
- makes up the transverse and vertical fibers of the covering of dens deep to the tectorial membrane
- vert. fibers - attach to foramen magnum & axis (resist distraction, taut during subcervical flexion)
- transverse fibers - attach to C1, prevents post. dislocation of C2, holds the dens in place
attach lateral dens to foramen magnum on both sides. Resist distraction of C1/C2 and O/C1, contralateral rotation, lateral movements
top of dens to occiput, resists O-C1 distraction
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