Chapter 4 Tissues: The Living Fabric

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heartmewhole
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35660
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Chapter 4 Tissues: The Living Fabric
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2010-09-19 00:08:00
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Tissues
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Tissues
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  1. What are tissues?
    groups of similar cells similar in structure and function
  2. What are the four types of tissues?
    • 1. Epithelial - covering
    • 2. Connective - support & binding
    • 3. Muscle - movement
    • 4. Nerve - control
  3. What are the characteristics of Epithelial Tissue?
    • - supported by connective tissue (called basement membrane)
    • - avascular (no blood supply) but innervated (has nerves)
    • - regenerative
    • - polarity (definite shape)
    • - simple (single) & stratified (multiple) layers
    • - cell shape
  4. What are the 3 cell shapes?
    squamous, cuboidal, and columnar
  5. Simple Squamous
    • diffusion and filtration, friction reducing lining
    • - found in lining of heart and blood vessels
    • - epithelial type of tissue
  6. Simple Cuboidal
    • secretion and absorption
    • - found in kidney tubules and ovary surface
  7. Simple Columnar
    • absorption and secretion
    • - ciliated cells found in ining of bronchi, uterine tubes
    • - conciliated found in digestive tract, gallbladder
  8. Psudostratified Columnar
    • single layer of cells with different heights; some do not reath the free surface
    • - function in secretion and propulsion of mucus
    • - present in the sale sperm-carrying ducts (conciliated) and trachea (ciliated)
  9. Stratified Squamous
    • protection of underlying areas subjucted to abrasion
    • - found in the external skin's epidermis and lining of the esophagus, mouth and vagina
  10. Stratified Cuboidal
    • - quite rare in the body
    • - found in some sweat and mammary glands
  11. Stratified Columnar
    • - limited distribution in the body
    • - found in the pharynx, male urethra, and lining some glandular ducts
  12. Transitional
    • - several cell layers, basal cells are cuboidal, surface cells are dome shaped
    • - stretches and changes shape
    • - lines the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of the urethra
  13. Epithelia: Glandular
    a gland is one or more cells that make and secrete an aqueous fluid
  14. Epithelia: Glandular; how are they classified?
    • - site of product release - endocrine or exocrine
    • - relative number of cells forming the gland - unicellular or multicellular
  15. What are the two types of glands?
    endocrine & exocrine
  16. What are endocrine glands?
    • ductless glands that produce hormones
    • - enter the blood and stay in the blood
  17. What are exocrine glands?
    • - more numerous than endocrine glands
    • - secrete their products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities
    • - examples include mucous, sweat, oil, and salivary glands
  18. Modes of Secretion (Exocrine)
    • - merocrine: products are secreted by exocytose (e.g. pancreas, sweat, and salivary glands)
    • - holocrine: products are secreted by the rupture of gland cells (cells destroyed in process)
  19. Connective Tissue
    • found throughout the body; most abundant and widely distributed
    • - fills the spaces in the body between the other major tissue types (connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood)
  20. Functions of Connective Tissue
    • - binding and support
    • - protection
    • - insulation
    • - transportation (blood deals mostly with transportation)
  21. Structural Elements of Tissue
    • - gound substance - unstructured material that fills the space between cells
    • - fibers
    • - cells
  22. Ground Substance
    • - interstitial (tissue) fluid (mostly water)
    • - adhesion proteins - fibernectin and laminin
    • - proteoglycans - glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
  23. How do proteoglycans - glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) function?
    function as a molecular sieve through which nutrients diffuse between blood capillaries and cells
  24. What are the three types of functions? Describe each.
    • - collagen: tough; provides high tensile strength
    • - elastic: long, thin fibers that allow for stretch
    • - reticular: branched collagenous fibers that form delicate networks
  25. List the 4 different types of cells
    • - fibroblasts: connective tissue proper
    • - chondroblasts: cartilage
    • - osteoblasts: bone
    • - hematopoietic stem cells: blood (white blood cells, plasma cells, macrophages and mast cells)

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