bio chpt5.txt

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bio chpt5.txt
2010-09-19 03:05:21

chapter 5 bio
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  1. Biological important chemical groups?
    alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, amine, sulfhydryl, organic phosphate
  2. Methyl Group?
    CH3, not reactive, acts as recognizable tag on biological molecules
  3. Alcohol Hydroxyl
    polar, can form H bonds with H2O to dissolve organic compounds (example: sugar)

    R - OH
  4. Aldehyde Carbonyl
    end of C skeleton, can be structural isomers with different properties, ex: acetone and propanol

    C is double bonded to O, single bond w/ H
  5. Ketone Carbonyl
    within the C skeleton, can be structural isomers with different properties, example: aldoses and ketoses

    Carbon is double bonded with O
  6. Carboxyl Group
    very polar, has acidic properties (source of H+ ions), WEAK ACID

    cabon is double bonded to O, single bonded to OH
  7. Amino Group
    acts as a base, can pick up H+ from surrounding solution, WEAK BASE

    NH2 base
  8. Sulfhydryl Group
    two can react to form covalent bond, allows crosslinking to stabilize protein structures (ie: maintains curliness of hair)

    SH base
  9. Phosphate Group
    phosphoric acid that loss 2 Hydrogens, partakes in many chemical reactions with H2O which leads to release of energy

    Phosphate is double bonded to an O (top), single bonded to OH (right), single bonded to OH (bottom), and single bonded to O (left)
  10. Ester?
    formed by combining alcohol and a carboxylic acid
  11. Amide?
    formed by combining amine and carboxylic acid
  12. Phosphoester?
    formed by combining alcohol and phosphoric acid
  13. Transesterification?
    used in synthesis of polyester, combines alcohol and ester to form a different alcohol and different ester
  14. 4 large biological molecules?
    Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Nucleic acid
  15. Macromolecules?
    composed of THOUSANDS of covalently connected atoms
  16. Polymer?
    long molecule that consists of many monomers

    Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are considered polymers
  17. Monomers?
    small building blocks of molecules that combine to create a polymer

    Monosaccharide (sugar), nucleotide, amino acid
  18. Condensation/dehydration reaction?
    two monomers bond together and lose a water molecule
  19. Enzymes?
    macromolecules that speed up dehydration process, some are protein based, some are RNA based, acts as catalyst, NOT CONSUMED, perform functions repeatedly, functions as workhorses that carry out processes of life
  20. Hydrolysis?
    reverse reaction of dehydration; dissembles polymers to monomers
  21. Simple Polymer?
    oligosaccharide, oligonucleotide, peptide
  22. Complex Polymer?
    polysaccharide, nucleic acid, polypeptide protein
  23. Proteins
    accounts for more than 50% of dry mass of most cells, functions include: enzymatic functions, structural support, storage, transport, cellular communication, movement, and defense against foreign substances
  24. Enzymatic Proteins?
    acceleration of chemical reactions

    Digestive enzymes
  25. Structural proteins

    silk fibers, collagen and elastin in animal connective tissues, etc.
  26. Storage proteins
    storage of AMINO ACIDS

    ovalbumin in egg white caseins, protein of milk, storage proteins in plant seeds
  27. Transport protein
    transport of other substances

  28. Hormonal proteins
    coordinates an organism's activities

    Insulin, hormone secreted by pancreas
  29. Receptor proteins
    response of cell to chemical stimuli

    receptors in nerve cell membranes
  30. Contractile and motor proteins

    actin and myosin in muscles, proteins in cilia and flagella
  31. Defensive proteins
    protection against disease

    Antibodies combat bacteria and viruses
  32. Polypeptides
    built from same set of 20 amino acids, consists of multiple peptides (proteins consist of 1 or more polypeptides)
  33. Nonpolar covalent bond?
    atoms share the electron equally
  34. polar covalent bond?
    one atoms is more EN, atoms are NOT shared equally (electrons)
  35. Polar amino acids
    contain functional groups in side chains, can hydrogen bond with other groups, hydrophilic and often found on surface of proteins

    • Polar uncharged: S, T, C, Y, N, Q
    • Polar charged: D & E (acidic), K, R, H (basic)
  36. Protein primary structure
    determined by unique sequence of amino acids and inherited genetic information, sequence in which monomers are connected

    shows covalent peptide bonds
  37. Protein secondary structure
    found in most proteins, consists of coils and folds in polypeptide chain, local ways of founding polymers

    shows hydrogen bonds
  38. Protein tertiary structure
    determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups), overal fold of molecule (3D or symmetrical)

    hydrophobic interactions, Van Der Waals interactions, Ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds
  39. Protein quarternary structure
    results when protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains, intermolecular associations

    hydrophobic interactions, Van Der Waals interactions, Ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds

    Collagen (fibrous protein and most abundant protein in mammals) and Hemoglobin (4 polypeptides)
  40. Cofactors?
    Myoglobin stores O2, Hemoglobin transports O2, both use Heme cofactors to bind O2; some proteins bind ions and/or organic molecules to help fulfill their function
  41. What determines a protein structure?
    physical and chemical conditions can affect structure, alterations to pH, salt concentration, temperature, other environment factors
  42. Denaturation?
    loss of protein's native structure; biologicall inactive, can be reverse
  43. Carbohydrates?
    sugars, polymers of sugars

    contains Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in ratio of CH2O
  44. Disaccharide?
    dehydration reaction that joins two monosaccharides; forms covalent bond called glycosidic linkage

    ex: Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose
  45. Polysaccharides?
    polymers of sugar, storage and structure roles, hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides
  46. Starch
    storage polysaccharides of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers

    unbranched = amylose, branched = amylopectin
  47. Glycogen?
    storage polysaccharide in animals, more branched than amylopectin; humans store glycogen in liver and muscle cells

    Diabetes is cause of glycogen metabolism
  48. Alpha glucose?
    polymers that have a helical structure
  49. Beta glucose?
    polymers that have a straight structure
  50. Nucleotides?
    consists of 3 components: Nitrogenous base, sugar, and phosphate
  51. Lipids?
    group of molecules that are water-insoluble (hydrophobic!!!), nonpolar covalent bonds, do not form polymers

    Fats, oils, waxes, phospholipids, steroids, carotenoids

    bold = biologically important lipids
  52. Fats
    constructed from two smaller molecules by dehydration reaction (glycerol and fatty acids), forms triacylglycerol

    glycerol = 3 carbon alcohol w/ hydroxyl group attack to each carbon

    fatty acid = carboxyl group attached to long hydrocarbon skeleton
  53. wax?
    type of lipid, natural secretions of plants and animals
  54. saturated fatty acids?
    maximum # of hydrogen atoms possible, no double bonds, tight packing = solid @ RT

    animal fats are usually saturated fat
  55. unsaturated fatty acids?
    1 or more double bonds, kinks prevent tight packing, liquid @ RT

    plant fats and fish fats are usually unsaturated
  56. Hydrogenation?
    process of converting unsaturated fats to saturated fats by adding hydrogen, creates unsaturated fat with trans double bonds in addition to saturated ones

    trans fat = very very bad
  57. Functions of fat?
    energy storage (twice as much energy as same mass of polysaccharides such as starch)

    humans store fat in adipose cells; adipose tissues also cushions vital organs and insulates body
  58. Phopholipids?
    two fatty acids and a phosphate are attached to glycerol

    hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails

    Major components of all cell membranes
  59. Steroids?
    lipids characterized by carbon skeleton, consists of 4 fused rings

    cholesterol is a steroid, component in animal cell membranes, precursor from which other steroids are built (sex hormones)

    high levels in blood = contributes to cardiovascular disease