Ch 7 - Learning (Psychology)
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A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience.
Behavior + Consequence
3 types of learning
- Classical Conditioning - Pavlov
- Operant Conditioning - Skinner
- Observational Learning - Albert Bandura
-Reflexive learning in which an organism comes to associate significant events.
Initial learning of the response.
Decline in the response in the absence of the associate response.
The reappearance of an extinguished behavior.
ex. 5 years ago you had a significant other & you had a favorite song, you hear that song today and think about that person
The tendency of a similar stimulus to evoke a similar response.
ex. Little Albert in the movie
The ability to distinguish between the stimulus.
His experiments allow us to understand how all organisms can and do adapt to their environment. Showed us that even internal processes, can be measured and studied.
Initially considered to be a spokesman for Psychology. His experiment with Little Albert eventually got him fired.
-Links new stimuli to new behavior.
-Involves involuntary and non-reflective behavior (nuture).
-Increases or decreases behavior based on reward or punishment.
A process whereby successive steps toward a desired goal are reinforced.
Any event that increases the frequency of the behavior it follows.
2 types of reinforcement
- Positive Reinforcement
- Negative Reinforcement
Presenting a positive stimulus after the behavior.
Remove an aversive stimulus after the behavior.
ex. Figure 7.8 A Skinner Box, p. 233
Any event or consequences that decrease the frequency of the behavior that it follows.
Side effects of punishment:
- -Increased aggression
- -Passive aggressiveness
- -Avoidance behavior
- -Temporary suppression
- -Learned helplessness
Stuff that we have to have.
1. food, air, water
2. sleep, shelter, sex
are learned, can be more subtle, psychological
3. People pleasing
- Learning by observing.
- Links cognitive and behavioral learning theories.
- The response reinforcement that may be more subtle, or is perhaps, internal.
- Albert Bandura
When you emulate someone else.
Also, a term used by Albert Bandura.
Steps to Behavior Modification
- 1. Identify the unwanted behavior.
- 2. Specify the specific target behavior.
- 3. Select appropriate reinforcement.
- 4. Reinforce consistently.
- 5. Ignore the unwanted behavior.
Identify the following from the example:
You want to quit smoking. You no longer want to put toxins into your body. You want to quit smoking. Treat yourself to a pedicure. Do what you set out to do and stick with it! Go do something else when the urge hits you.
1. Unwanted behavior
2. Specify the specific target behavior
3. Select appropriate reinforcement
4. Reinforce consistently
5. Ignore the unwanted behavior
- 1. You no longer want to put toxins into your body.
- 2. You want to quit smoking.
- 3. Treat yourself to a pedicure.
- 4. Reinforce consistently.
- 5. Go do something else when the urge hits you.
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