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2010-09-19 11:55:39

A review of key Chemistry vocabulary
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  1. Atom
    the smallest stable units of matter
  2. Proton
    atoms with a positive electrical charge
  3. Neutron
    atoms that are electrically neutral
  4. Electron
    atoms with a negative electrical charge
  5. Atomic number
    the number of protons in an atom
  6. Atomic mass
    the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
  7. Isotope
    different forms of the same element with same number of protons, but different number of neutrons
  8. Ion
    atoms or molecules that carry an electric charge
  9. Cation
    an ion with a positive charge
  10. Anion
    an ion with a negative charge
  11. Molecule
    any chemical structure consisting of atoms held together by covalent bonds
  12. Ionic bond
    chemical bonds created by the electrical attraction between cations and anions
  13. Non-polar covalant bond
    involve an equal sharing of electrons
  14. Polar covalent bond
    involve an unequal sharing of electrons
  15. Hydrogen bond
    the attraction between an hydrogen atom and a negative bond on an oxygen, nitrogen or fluorine atom
  16. Hydrophilic
    molecules that interact readily with water
  17. Hydrophobic
    molecules that do not interact readily with water
  18. Anabolism
    the synthesis reaction; to build
  19. Catabolism
    the decomposition reaction; the break down
  20. Enzyme
    proteins that promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy
  21. Coenzyme
    a protein that has a specific function binds with another enzyme to form a system
  22. Activiation energy
    the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction
  23. Nutrient
    the essential elements and molecules normally obtained from the diet
  24. Metabolite
    a much larger group that can be synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions
  25. Organic molecule
    always containing carbon and/or hydrogen
  26. pH
    the measure of the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
  27. pH scale
    a scale to show the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution
  28. Acid
    a solution with a pH of below 7; more H+ ions than HO- ions
  29. Base
    a solution with a pH of above 7, more HO- ions than H+ ions
  30. Carbohydrate
    an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
  31. Monosaccharide (simple sugar)
    a carbohydrate containing 3 to 7 carbon atoms
  32. Glucose
    the most important metabolic "food" in the body (C6H12O6)
  33. Polysaccharide
    formed from repeated hydration sythesis of sugars creating long chains
  34. Protein
    long chains of amino acids that perform essential functions
  35. Amino acid
    the building blocks of protein; with an amino group and carboxylic acid group (thus, amino acid)
  36. Peptide bond
    a covalent bond between the carboxylic acid of 1 amino acid to another group
  37. Lipid
    fats; contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but 1:2 ratio between carbon & hydrogen
  38. Fatty acid
    long carbon chains with hydrogen atoms attached
  39. Cholesterol
    a steroid that is responsible for some essential functions
  40. Steroid
    large lipid molecules that share a distinctive carbon framework
  41. Nucleic acid
    large molecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and phosphorus; functions include storing and processing information at the molecular level
  42. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    manufacture specific proteins from information provided by DNA
  43. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    determines a large number of functions and characteristics
  44. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
    a high energy compound which stores cellular energy in high energy bonds