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2010-09-30 21:51:23

Blood Vessels
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  1. The three major types of blood vessels, what are they
    Arteries, Cappillaries and Veins
  2. What is the job of the arteries
    carry blood away from the heart
  3. What is the function of the cappillaries
    carry blood into and out of tissues
  4. Capillaries are considered what size blood vessels
  5. Veins do what
    carry blood toward the heart
  6. The blood vessels in the adult human stretch how far
    about 100,000 km (60,000 miles)
  7. Arteries are divided into three groups in terms of what
    size and their function
  8. What are the three groups of arteries
    elastic arteries, muscular arteries and arterioles.
  9. Elastic arteries are sometimes referred to as what
    Conducting arteries
  10. Describe elastic arteries and where they are located
    thick walled arteries near the heart (at the aorta and its major branches)
  11. The elastic arteries have large lumens that make it what type of pathway
    low-resistance pathway
  12. Elastic arteries conduct blood from and to where
    from the heart to medium-sized arteries
  13. Distally the elastic arteries give way to what type of arteries
    muscular arteries
  14. Muscular arteries are also know as
    distributing arteries
  15. Muscular (Distributing) Arteries deliver blood to where
    specific body organs
  16. these arteries have the thickest tunics "coverings" of all the vessels
    Muscular (distrubuting) arteries
  17. these arteries are more active in vasoconstriction and less distensible and why
    Muscular Arteries since there tunica contains relatively more smooth muscle and less elastic tissue than do elastic arteries.
  18. The smallest of the arteries, that lead into the capillary beds
  19. What are the smaller arterioles tunica's made up of
    a single layer of smooth muscle cells spiraling around the endothelial lining
  20. Most tissues have a rich supply of what type of vessle
  21. Structurally, there are three types of capillaries
    Continuous, Fenestrated and Sinusoidal
  22. Continuous cappillaries, which are the most common are aboundant where
    in the skin and muscles
  23. these capillaries are similare to the continuous capillaries and are located where
    fenestrated capillary located in special loacations e.g. kidney, small intestine
  24. These are considered highly modified, leaky capillaries found where
    sinusoidal capillaries located in the liver, bone marrow, spleen and adrenal medulla
  25. Capillaries function alone, true or false
    False they tend to form an interweaving networks called capillary beds.
  26. The flow of blood from an arteriole to a venule—that is, through a capillary bed—is called the microcirculation
  27. Capillary bed consists of two types of vessels, what are they
    a vascular shunt and true capillaries
  28. Blood can flow through the true capillaries and take part in exchange with tissue cells. The sphincter or gates are in what mode or state
    relaxed or open
  29. After eating, the sphincter or gates in a capillary bed should be relaxed or open in what part of your body
    in the gastrointestinal organs to receive the breakdown product of digestion.
  30. When exercising vigorously blood is rerouted from the digestive organs (food or no food)to the capillary beds of the what and why
    your skeletal muscles since the blood is more immediately need. The pathway or gates are closed (contracted) in the digestive region and relaxed (open) in the skeletal muscles.
  31. What carries blood from the capillary beds to the heart
  32. Venules ranging from 8 to 100 μm in diameter, and are formed when
    when the capillaries unite
  33. The diameter of successive venous vessels increases, and their walls gradually thicken at what point
    when the venules progress to larger and larger veins.
  34. Venules join to form thin walled, larger lumen and are then called
  35. Veins consist of thick longitudinal bundles of what
    collagen fibers and elastic networks
  36. Blood returns directly to the heart in this largest veins
    the venaecavae
  37. What percentage of the body’s blood supply is in the veins at any time
  38. these are referred to as capacitance vessels and blood reservoirs
  39. Arterial Blood Pressure Reflects two factors, what are they
    how much the elastic arteries close to the heart can be stretched (their compliance or distensibility) and the volume of blood forced into them at any time
  40. The pulse pressure (Pp) is the difference between what
    the systolic pressure (Ps) and the diastolic pressure (Pd)
  41. The pressure the propels the blood to the tissues is called what
    Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
  42. How is mean arterial pressure (MAP) measured
    MAP = Pd + Pp/3 example of an average person: MAP = 80 mm Hg + 40mm HG (this is the difference between systolic and the diastolic pressures 120-80=40) / 3 = 93 mm Hg
  43. Mean arterial pressure MAP and pulse pressure increases or declines with increasing distance from the heart? why
    decline since the farther from the heart the less difference in the blood pressure
  44. Capillary Blood Pressure dropes approximately to what?
    35 mm Hg at the beginning of the capillary bed and 15 mm Hg at the end of the capillary beds.
  45. Low capillary pressures are desirable because 2 reasons:
    1.capillaries are fragile and high pressures would rupture them 2. Capillaries are extremely permeable and thus even the low capillary pressure forces solute-containing fluids (filtrate) out of the bloodstream into the interstitial space. This fluid flows are important for continuously refreshing the interstitial fluid.
  46. Venous Blood Pressure is steady and changes very little during the cardiac cycle true or false
  47. The pressure gradient in the veins, from venules to the termini of the venae cavae, is what
    about 15 mm Hg (that from the aorta to the ends of the arterioles is about 60 mm Hg).
  48. The pressure difference between the arteries and the veins becomes very clear when what happens
    If a vein is cut, the blood flows evenly from the wound; a lacerated artery spurts blood.
  49. Name three sites above the chest where the pulse is most easily palpated
    Temporal artery, Facial artery and the common carotid artery.
  50. Name three sites below the chest and above the thigh where the pulse is most easily palpated
    Brachial, Radial and Femoral arteries.
  51. Name three sites below the thigh where the pulse is most easily palpated
    Popiteal, Posterior tibial adn Dorsalis pedis arteries
  52. Central among the homeostatic mechanisms that regulate cardiovascular dynamics are those that maintain blood pressure, what are they (3)
    principally cardiac output, peripheral resistance, and blood volume.
  53. Hepatic Portal Vein –carries blood from where
    the liver with the nutrients to the general circulation
  54. Inferior mesenteric vein carries blood from where
    from large intestine
  55. Superior mesenteric vein carries blood from where
    small intestine, colon
  56. Splenic vein carries blood from where
    spleen, pancreas, stomach
  57. Gastric vein carries blood from where
    lower stomach