Antitussives, Mucolytics, and Expectorants -- Ch 32

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walkonwater
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35721
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Antitussives, Mucolytics, and Expectorants -- Ch 32
Updated:
2010-09-19 13:15:19
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Antitussives Mucolytics Expectorants
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actions, uses, adv. reactions,
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  1. What are antitussives?
    A drug used to relieve coughing. Many are combined with another drug (antihistamine or expectorant) and sold OTC ... some are Rx only.
  2. How do antitussives work?
    • -depress cough center (located in the medulla) <-- these are centrally-acting drugs (e.g. codeine and dextromethorphan)
    • -anesthetizing stretch receptors in respiratory passages <-- peripherally-acting (e.g. Benzonatate (Tessalon))
  3. Give an example of centrally-acting antitussive and peripherally-acting antitussive.
    • central-acting --> codeine and dextromethorphan
    • peripheral-acting --> benzonatate (Tessalon)
  4. What can antitussives be used for?
    -relieve a nonproductive cough
  5. Name some adverse reactions of Antitussives.
    • -lightheadedness
    • -dizziness
    • -drowsiness or sedation
    • -nausea
    • -vomiting
    • -constipation
    • *drugs with two or more ingredients tend to cause less adverse reactions then drugs containing a single ingredient
  6. What important interaction must a nurse consider when giving antitussives?
    Monoamine oxidase inhibitors antidepressants will cause hypotension, fever, nausea, jerking motions to the leg, and coma when given with dextromethorphan
  7. After how long of taking antitussives should a pt wait to see a doctor?
    If in 10 days the cough isn't releived then see a doctor. If the cough is accompanied with a fever, chest pain, severe headache, or skin rash, the pt should consult the primary health care provider.
  8. WHat happens if you chew bensonatate (tessalon) tablets?
    A local anesthetic effect with possible choking as a risk will occur if Tessalon tablets are chewed. DO NOT Chew!!
  9. What should the nurse monitor for in a pt taking antitussives?
    • -Risk for injury r/t the drugs tendancy to cause drowsiness, dizziness, or sedation
    • -Impaired cognitive functioning
    • -Ineffective airway clearance r/t the drugs action ( depression of the cough reflex can result in pooling secretions in the lungs. <-- this could lead to a pneumonia, atelectasis.)
  10. How much fluid should a pt be encouraged to drink?
    If not contraindicated by disease processes ... 1500-2000 ml is recommended fluid intake
  11. How long after taking a lozenge (cough drop) should a pt wait to drink fluids or eat?
    30 minutes. that way the effect of the lozenge is not minim,ized
  12. What is a mucolytic?
    A drug that breaks down thick, tenacious mucus in the lower portions of the lungs
  13. WHat is an expectorant?
    A drug that thins respiratory secretions to remove them more easily.
  14. How do expectorants work?
    They increase the production of respiratory secretions, which in turn appears to dercrease the viscosity of the mucus. This helps to raise secretions from the respiratory tract.
  15. What does acetylcysteine smell like?
    rotten eggs
  16. Opioid Antitussives
    -codeine (Used for suppression of nonproductive cough, releif of mild to moderate pain)
  17. Nonopiod Antitussives
    • -benzonatate (Tessalon)
    • -dextromethorphan (Robitussin, Delsym, DexAlone)
    • -dextromethorphan and benzocaine (cough-x, tetra-formula)
    • -diphenhydramine (AllerMax, hydramine cough, Tusstat)
  18. Mucolytics
    acetylcysteine (mucomyst)
  19. expectorants
    • -guaifenesin (glyceryl guaiacolate) (Robitussin)
    • -potassium iodide
  20. potassium iodide [Pima, SSKI]
    Type: Expectorant

    use
    : symptomatic releif of chronic pulmonary disease complicated by tenacious mucus

    adv. reaction: iodidne sensitivity or iodism (sore mouth, metallic tase, increased salivation, N/V, epigastric pain, parotid swelling, and pain)

    Dosage ranges: 300-1000 mg orally after meals BID or TID, to 1.5g orally TID

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